ständige regelbauten im bereich AOK15
Each of the three army components developed its own system of Regelbauten. This was partly due to the fact that the bunkers performed different function, but also partly due to the fact that each army component simply wanted to have its own system. This resulted in the following prefixes being used:
2. Ständige bunkers of the Heer
With the introduction of the R100 series in 1939 the Westwall received its first 'adult' series of bunkers: well-balanced in terms design, composition, construction and equipment. Some of these 100 series types were so successful that there was no replacement and they continued being built. Others were felt to ben using too many materials and were replaced by new and smaller bunkers of the later 600 series. After the introduction of the latter, it was forbidden to use the older bunkers.
The 100 series was succeeded by an R400 and an R500 series. The primary objective of the former was to incorporate the captured Czech fortress weapons , but this was never put into practice. The 500 series, frequently built into both the Westwall and the Atlantikwall was intended as an alternative to the 100 series and also as an extension of their function. The bunkers were equipped with less expensive armoured materials and conformed to the need apparently felt for covering mobile field gun sites. A new element in the 500 series was the possibility they provided for exchanging and combining elements of various types.
From 2 November 1942 onwards the R600 series was built. These new designs too the place of the outdated Westwall designs and furnished the army with designs for its new task: the installation and manning of coastal batteries. Besides this, the series offered designs for building in heavy fortress weapons within the system. One striking group of designs emerged in later contingents of the 600 series. It formed the so-called Kleinststände: small, simple constructions of concrete, 1.5 m thick. The presence of these light shelters reflected the scarcity of building materials.
A further distinction between the types of ständige Regelbauten concerned the thickness of the walls. Bunker types in Baustärke B had walls of 2 metres thick, while those built in Baustärke A were 3.5 metres thick. The latter types were built in exposed positions or in case they performed a very important function within the strongpoint.
Ständige bunkers were able to provide protection against direct hits of bombs of up to 250 pounds (compared to Vf constructions which could only take 50 pounds). For this reason, these bunkers were ideal for shelter in case of air attack. To clear inform soldiers that a bunker was safe from air attack, the letters St were painted at the entrance of the bunker.
The ständige 600 series bunker types for the Heer were not all released at the same time, but rather in no fewer than 8 times in so-called Ergänzungen. These additions reflected the scarcity of building materials, which worsened as the war progressed. The following stages can be distinguished:
By way of illustration we offer an example of the Typenheft of the 5e Ergänzung. The document is dated 22 November 1943 and can be found here.
Below we find a detailed overview of the form, function and dimensions of the 600 series:
FIRST SERIES: 2 November 1942
SECOND SERIES: 3 February 1943 new!
3. Ständige bunkers of the Kriegsmarine
The construction of the naval designs differed from those of the army. The thickness of the concrete used varied from 1.20, 1.50, 1.70 to 2.20m for the heavier bunkers, measures which were applied next to each other, even within one construction. In accordance with army custom, the naval designs were given a prefix (see above). The numbering in this series of designs is less clear than that in the army series. The numbers run from 1 to 800 and there are clusters within the different series. The M range is set in a 100 and 200 series; the Fl range in a 200 and 300 series; while most S designs have been assigned a number between 400 and 500. Finally, the V range falls between 100 and 200, some of which were also used by the army and the air force. Strangely enough, some numbers are repeated from different ranges (like M151 and V151).
4. Ständige bunkers of the Luftwaffe
From 1940 the Luftwaffe developed its own characteristic designs. Notwithstanding the fact that the aim and function of the air force batteries and the naval air defences corresponded to each other, both their fire control posts and gun sites differed in design. While Kriegsmarine emplacements were round or octagonal, often asymmetric and sited beside the bunkers concerned, Luftwaffe designs provided rectangular emplacements which were sited on top of the bunker. Luftwaffe designs were all preceded by the prefix L, followed by a number between 400 and 500.
5. Ständige bunkers of the Wehrmacht in Armeeoberkommando 15
The document which you will find below is fairly unique. Not only does it show all the ständige bunkers built in the area of the Armeeoberkommando 15, but it also details the strongpoints each bunker type was built in, again in the entire area of the Armeeoberkommando 15. This should help interested readers in finding specific types in specific strongpoints. The document also includes a series of water bunkers, especially designed by the AOK 15 and numbered R184-196.
All bunkers of the series 100, 200, 400, 500, 600 and 700 series have been included (the 3xx series is left out, since none of the bunkers were built within AOK15). Within these series bunkers of the Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe have also been included. Corrections and/or additions are very welcome (see the home page for the e-mail address).
TO BE CONTINUED