Home:Tango-E-Vita/sensualidad y dramatismo_Men and women experience sexual arousal very differently, not only physiologically but psychologically.

Les extrêmes se touchent ?
(Last modified 21 march 2007)

  Differences, such as sex and gender differences, are stimulating and exalting for those who are curious to explore and reveal differences. A contrast in a matching way, being two identical but different, clearly means something... there is something energetically functional and necessary to it. In dancing tango, this subtle twinning is the play. In some way, bodies who are dancing tango are revealing differences equally. Some distance is needed for doing what it takes to actualize an act of desire.

     

  A romantic tanguero: Dancing tangos is like writing letters, they are written to a certain particular other who responds... and sometimes... the writing gets the shape of some sort of an inspiring dialogue. A dialogue which happens between people, it happens in the space between them, as in the space of a close embrace on the dancefloor. So, letters are based on the existence of distance... and the correspondence is crossing over the distances between people, creating a dialogue. For a moment... they get involved or mixed-up in the form of a conversation, a mutual interaction, and interchanging. That can become stimulating and exalting to the spirit, especially when the dialogue plays with tension, such as the teasing tension between concealing and revealing, or the tension between the risks and pleasures of expression and... trust.

  Duality is typical for our western culture, it seems to be an essential, delicious and addictive stimulus. It feeds the imagination. Our imaginations need it to keep engaged. From a narrative point of view, dramatic tension in a play starts when there is a opposition of characters. Without a contradiction within your action, a split, you can't develop a structure of motion. An obstacle, a risk, makes the objective, the longing visible. It can become overwhelming, like crossing an unmasking bridge, crossing the contra-point, crossover and be exposed, willingly. Contrast, the opposite, a contra-point is needed. A sandwich-mordida is such a contra point. The woman trespasses the man's space and makes her ganchos like a happy hooker.

  Presumably, the position or energetic role of the macho and the Ewig-Weibliche Tanguera is such an opposition which is... energetically functional. It gives a dramatic tension which results in art.

Tanguera_CD

  Some tango theater productions have a dramatic structure, beside dance they tell a story. For example, the new musical Tanguera tells the history of tango, it frames immigrants and Creoles, ruffians and compadres, prostitutas and milongueros... all are catched in a game of hope, disillusion and contradicting passions that only the tango knows to reveal. It is the history of a francesita that arrives in Argentina at the beginning of 20'th century, it is the lifestory of thousands of immigrants.

  Astor Piazzolla's operetta María de Buenos Aires tells another story....

Yo soy María
de Buenos Aires
de Buenos Aires María, no ven quién soy yo?
María Tango, María del arrabal,
María noche, María pasión fatal,
Maria del amor de
Buenos Aires soy
yo!

Yo soy María
de Buenos Aires
si en este barrio la gente pregunta quién soy,
pronto muy bien lo sabrán
las hembras que
me envidiarán,
y cada macho a mis pies
como un ratón
en mi trampa ha de caer.


Each macho at my feet
as a mouse
in my trap he has to fall.


Tango-E-Vita, multilingual Belgian website which focuses on the many different dimensions of performing and experiencing Argentine Tango Dance as a living, ongoing event. Online multimedia such as instructional video-clips on guiding technique and views of shows. Articles in English, Dutch and other languages, with information and thoughts on the manner and quality of couple dancing and, regarding the mind-body relation and the act of exploring non-verbal communication, the powerful contemporary value of it. A special attention for multiple perspectives on gender, social class differences and mentality changes in the history of Tango Argentino.

Other, Illustrated Tango Reflections:
Dance interpretations on Gallo Ciego
Walking the tango rhythm
Walking Seduction
Dance is a physical need
Tangowals clips vals Milena Plebs Ezequiel Farfaro
Online Tangolessen videoclips videolessen updated
Carlos Gavito and Maria Plazaola
Showclips Forever Tango - great milongueros

Selected YouTube TangoVideos:
1. TangoClass - instructional vídeos - TangoLessons
2. Milonga and Candombe dancing
3. Tangovals clips - Tango waltzing - Valse - Tangowals
4. Various Great Tangoclips Online fast internet access needed
5. Fast Links to Selected Tango Dance Vidio Updates
6. Musicality & Humor in Tangodance - videoclips

      symboliek_magie_paardansen_mystiek_samenspel_comparsa

Tango, Gender y Emancipación ...
Is tango macho or the Ewig-Weibliche?

  Macho or the Ewig-Weibliche, how much have these cliché "gender-concepts" changed since 1900? Are images of tangodance only folkloric? Or do some see it now through the gender's looking glass?

  Gender: Culturally and socially constructed roles, responsibilities privileges, relations and expectations of women men girls and boys. Socially determined ideas which define what roles and activities are appropriate for women and men, the power to do or not to do things, leading or following. Sex refers to the biological characteristics that categorise someone as either female or male; whereas gender refers to the socially determined ideas and practices of what it is to be female or male. However, the value of the distinction between the terms 'sex' and 'gender' has been challenged more recently as 'sex' has also been seen to be socially constructed, like a virtual reality. Unreality seems today's cultural reality. Culture: The distinctive patterns of ideas, beliefs, and norms which characterise the way of life and relations of a society or group within a society. Culture is sometimes interpreted narrowly as 'custom' or 'tradition', and assumed to be natural and unchangeable. Despite these assumptions, culture is fluid and enduring. Gender Mainstreaming: An organisational strategy to bring a gender perspective to all aspects of an institution's policy and activities, through building gender capacity and accountability. Struggles against social inequalities are good, and while we are equalizing the duties among all, people look sexier than ever. Is it, as in the exiting origins of tango, an empowerment approach?

  Since the First World War, the social field has much changed, especially the women's role. The 1914-18 War was so shockingly brutal, that a new sense of personal identity was born. The masses started to reject the concept of privilege as the reason for a better life. History of clothing puts social appearances into view: Women stopped wearing jewellery and extravagant clothes. Dress rules for both sexes were relaxed in theatres and other venues. Women began to take part in voluntary work which ultimately broadened their horizons and changed their outlook forever. As women mixed with other classes, social barriers were eaten away and the relaxed dress rules meant that they all began to look similar. The effect of war on styles was that military braiding, belts with buckles and shorter skirts were seen everywhere. Clothes got shorter during the First World War out of practical necessity.

  After the war when women's dress became more mannish, each year seemed to get more in contradiction with the feminine woman beneath. Female clothes became looser and more shapeless in fit. The bust was suppressed, the waist disappeared, the shoulders became broader and hair shorter and shorter. The "Modern Woman" was competitive, sporty, emancipated as well as beautiful, and narrow boyish hips were preferred.

  This new silhouette emphasised a flattened chest and womanly curves were eliminated as the line became more simplified. The slender flat chested tanned body and face of a 15 year old became the desired profile of the bright young things of the Années Folles. Health and beauty clubs helped women reshape their body profiles whilst getting fitter and healthier. It was a difficult time for the previous leaders of fashion whose style of dressing became as passé as their rounded figures and older faces. More youthful women who could party all night and carry the boyish fashions well were all the rage. Big busted girls turned to bandaging their breasts flat, many adopted a bra that could be laced at both sides and pulled and pulled in to flatten the chest. As long as they looked boyish they looked fashionable. The 1920's also saw a universal fashion for short hair a more radical move beyond the curtain styles of the war era, which shocked some older citizens, since hair had always been thought a woman's crowning glory.

  Once shoes began to be mass manufactured in the 1920s, footwear became an essential fashion accessory. Now it was truly visible beneath shorter dresses it needed to be selected with more care and heels were over 2 inches high. During this Post First War Epoque, there was an increased use of make up and it was fashionable to perform the rites of make up in public. Instead of disappearing to the powder room women got out their engraved compact and applied lipstick and powder in sight of a whole restaurant or nightclub or tearoom.

  The Second World War redifined the gender roles even more. As the men were at the front, the women were needed for the economy. As war and disaster cleaned-up the old habits of mind, the female participation in the work force pushed the post-war economic production. First there was the booming ecomonomy. The consequence was a kind of overactivity, being more and more extreme lean and mean.

  Today's "timespirit" expresses a certain "language" to act like the others in society, a drive to uniformity. That certain "language" or "La forza del destino", can be related to self-objectification. It involves adopting a third-person perspective on the physical self and constantly assessing one’s own body in an effort to conform to the culture’s appearance ideal.  Objectification, the act of representing an abstraction as a physical thing. Though portraying oneself solely as an object to be looked at is sometimes viewed as exercising control, presentation of the self in this way can be viewed as a form of self-objectification. That is, they internalized an observer’s standard of appearance and are engaged in activities designed to enhance their sexual attractiveness. One can say that a catwalk is not about interior feelings. Studies have demonstrated that girls and women self-objectify more than boys and men do. Objectification will not affect all individuals equally, but certain situations that accentuate a person's awareness of observers' perspectives on their bodies are likely to enhance self-objectification. One group that might be expected to be particularly high in self-objectification are dancers. Most of the dancer’s time is spent in the studio where the mirror is omnipresent. The dance room is incomplete without a mirror. The mirror is objective. The mirror does not lie and it is a constant reminder to the dancer of surveillance.

  Of central importance to Objectification Theory, is that objectification in our society influences people to internalise the views present in society and to begin viewing themselves in the same way. That is, girls and boys gradually learn to adopt an observer's perspective on their physical selves and to treat themselves as an object to be looked at and evaluated on the basis of appearance. Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) term this particular perspective "self-objectification," and describe it as a form of self-consciousness that is characterised by habitual and constant self-monitoring of one's outward appearance to a prescribed ideal image. The constant monitoring of appearance accompanying self-objectification has a number of negative behavioural and experiential consequences. Internalising an observer's objectifying perspective is incompatible with a creative, playful or attentive state of mind. Further, habitual self-monitoring of outward appearance results in a diminished awareness of internal body states. The attention is turned away from the experience as a living, inner experience. Selfobjectification diverts attention, with people monitoring their own bodies as a reaction to (or in anticipation of) the objectifying gaze of others (gaze anticipation). In a society in which the individual is relentlessly confronted with a massive cultural production of unattainable role models, we find ourselves increasingly under pressure to conform.

  The omnipresence of desirable bodies with luxurious lingerie styling of the 1940's and the knowledge that we will never look like that, creates a paradoxical and artificial web of frustration and desire. This has created a completely new form of behavior which Ariadne von Schirach calls "Der Tanz um die Lust". Esthetic withdrawal, wrapped up in desirability. In the past, women were supposed to be pretty and men successful. Now, being young, attractive, verbal, intelligent and successful, seems today for all to be the only way to be. The pressure to satisfy and keep that goal, along with the insecurity and stress it brings, is overwhelming. When looks are becomming extreme equal, uniform, corresponding or matching, is not according a romantic drive, but suspicious power. Differences, are stimulating and exalting for those who are curious to explore and reveal differences.

Tango-E-Vita, multilingual Belgian website which focuses on the many different dimensions of performing and experiencing Argentine Tango Dance as a living, ongoing event. Online multimedia such as instructional video-clips on guiding technique and views of shows. Articles in English, Dutch and other languages, with information and thoughts on the manner and quality of couple dancing and, regarding the mind-body relation and the act of exploring non-verbal communication, the powerful contemporary value of it. A special attention for multiple perspectives on gender, social class differences and mentality changes in the history of Tango Argentino.

Se questo è un uomo ?

Mas•cu•line,

a. [L. masculinus, fr. masculus male,
manly, dim. of mas a male: cf. F. masculin. See {Male}
masculine.]

1. Of the male sex; not female.
Thy masculine children, that is to say, thy sons.
--Chaucer.

2. Having the qualities of a man; suitable to, or
characteristic of, a man; virile; not feminine or
effeminate; strong; robust.

That lady, after her husband's death, held the reins with a masculine energy.

3. Belonging to males; appropriated to, or used by, males.

Melina Sedo :

Women coming from holidays in Buenos Aires often mention the frequency of men trying to get friendly to them and one of the most important themes in argentine Milongas seems to be the relations between men and women. And: Tango lyrics mostly refer to men and women! But we non-argentine only speak of tango!

Cultural differences?

Social differences?

Latin Lover ?

In Europe, USA and other non-argentine places tangueros and tangueras seem to be mostly people with high school or university degree. In my poll 136 of 170 tangueros had high school and 125 of them university degree..

Well, most of the argentine tango-dancers coming to teach in Europe and the milongueros in Buenos Aires are no university graduates. And their approach to Tango and sexuality seems to be a little more relaxed than ours, does it not?

Today one is more aware of the factual dangers of expressions of sexuality then ever before, and the behaviors don't seem to be changing and are actually getting worse. The problem seems to stem from the way the message is being presented. Most students report they are tired of being told in lecture format what to do and what not to do. The same messages in the same format have created a backwash of attitudes and behavior. Researchers now tell us that what is needed are new ways of presentation.
To use dramatical presentations to explore behaviors, emotions, and convictions common to college students challenged with decisions concerning sexual behavior and their own sexual identity. The program is designed to model behaviors, skills and attitudes that are closely affiliated with healthy sexual decisions and relationships; to confront sexual myths; and to assist in the formation of positive-enriching rather than negative-destructive self-behaviors.

The masculine-feminine model, unlike the modern unisex model, is based on the differences between men and women - specifically, the power aspects of masculinity and femininity. It recognizes the difference between what a man wants from a woman and what a woman wants from a man.
The masculine-feminine modelling relationship is similar to the relationship between a male leading and a female following relationship, based on mutual understanding.

The man:
The man makes it possible for the woman to express her femininity by taking responsibility for her.
He makes the major decisions, after consulting with his woman
provides the basic necessities - food, clothing, shelter, etc - for his family
creates a structure - rules, routines, etc. - for his family
protects her from the 'masculine domain' (the business world)
protects his family from the dangers outside the home.

The woman:
the woman makes it possible for the man to express his masculinity by giving him the authority to carry out his responsibility for her.

But this society is changed for women nowadays,
and it’s changing for men ...


Partly, it’s the rise of feminism that has led many men, and society as a whole, to rethink gender roles.
And partly, men’s perceptions of themselves and their place in the world is being shaped by media images.
For several decades now, media critics and feminists alike have been examining the role of the media in creating and reinforcing stereotypical representations of women and femininity. But only recently have they expanded the research to consider how the media also construct, inform and reinforce prevalent ideas about men and masculinity.

One of the most socially constructed stereotypes is that of gender.

Gender schema theory argues that people are socialized (e.g., through parents, teachers, peers, toys, and the popular media) into believing that gender differences are significant and worth maintaining . Although there is actually more variability within than between the sexes, the concept of distinct and exclusive gender differences persists nonetheless.


Tango commentators often allude or explicitly refer to a female dancer attractiveness, emotionality, femininity, and heterosexuality (all of which effectively convey to the audience that her stereotypical gender role is more salient than her dancing role), yet male tangueros are depicted as powerful, independent, dominating, and valued.
This trivialization of tangueras is consistent with schema theory, which proposes that people have implicit cognitive structures that provide them with expectancies when processing information .
Conversely, male tangodancers described as attractive were expected to be perceived more negatively than would males not described as such, because the gender schema for tangueros leads people to expect that a man's dancing, rather than his physical attractiveness, should be the focus.

Changes in thinking and attitudes toward sexual and gender identity are taking place in society as a whole and within the sexual and gender identity communities. The meanings of these words will continue to change.
Because there is a slow but clear movement in society away from thinking of most human behaviors as appropriate to one sex and not appropriate to another but toward thinking of most human behaviors as appropriate to both sexes and both genders, below some explanations are listed as variability example.

For instance:
Sexual Identity and Gender Identity are similar in some ways and very different in others. Both refer to how one thinks of a person. The existence and perpetuation of gender and sexual identities is based in the historic and continuing oppression of people do not conform to certain aspects of society's gender roles.

Gender roles refer to the clothing, behaviors, thoughts, feelings, relationships, etc., that are considered appropriate or inappropriate for members of each sex.
However, sex, gender identity, and sexual identity refer to different aspects of oneself.
Therefore, one may be any combination of sex (male/female), gender (masculine/feminine), and sexual identity (straight, bisexual, lesbian/gay.)
Gender identity refers to how one thinks of one's own gender: whether one thinks of oneself as a man (masculine) or as a woman (feminine.)
Society prescribes arbitrary rules or gender roles (how one is supposed to and not supposed to dress, act, think, feel, relate to others, think of oneself, etc.) based on one's sex (whether one has a vagina or a penis.)
These gender roles are called feminine and masculine. Anyone who does not abide by these arbitrary profiles may be targeted for mistreatment.

Sexual identity refers to how one thinks of oneself in terms of whom one is sexually and romantically attracted to, specifically whether one is attracted to members of the same gender as one's own or the other gender than one's own. When one's sex and one's gender identity are different, one may base one's sexual identity on either one. Alternatively, one may have two sexual identities, one as a man and one as a woman.

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Click for videoclips


F / M: Female / Male...

Used to specify the direction of a sex or gender role change.
Femme:
1. Feminine or effeminate dress and behavior, regardless of _sex_ or _gender identity_.
2. A sub-identity of lesbian or gay, based on masculine or macho dress and behavior. (See _butch_.)

Female: One who has a vagina.

Female Impersonator (FI): A male who, on specific occasions, cross dresses and employs stereotypical feminine dialog, voice, and mannerisms for the entertainment of other people.
Feminine: The _gender role_ assigned to _females_.
Fetishistic Transvestite: A Transvestite who consistently eroticizes Cross Dressing. May also eroticize fantasies of gender/sex change.

Gender (identity): A psychological _gender role_. _Masculine_ or _feminine_. Gender (identity) community: People who identify as transvestite, transsexual, or transgendered, or as members of the gender community.
Gender dysphoria (GD): Unhappiness or discomfort experienced by one whose sexual organs do not match one's gender profile.
Gender neutral: Clothing, behaviors, thoughts, feelings, relationships, etc. which are considered appropriate for members of both sexes.
Gender role: Arbitrary rules, assigned by society, that define what clothing, behaviors, thoughts, feelings, relationships, etc. are considered appropriate and inappropriate for members of each sex. Some clothing, behaviors, etc. are considered appropriate for members of both sexes. Which things are considered masculine, feminine, or neutral varies according to location, class, occasion, and numerous other factors. (See _masculine_, _feminine_, and _gender neutral_.)

Girl: 1. A young female. 2. Colloquial term for _feminine_. Often used to specify gender of clothes. ["My _girl_ clothes."] _Girl_ has often been used as a condescending term for a woman, and is therefore distasteful to many people. (See _boy_.)
Hermaphrodite: One who has both a penis and a vagina.
Heterosexual (het): One who has significant sexual and romantic attractions primarily to members of the other sex (than oneself.) Derogatory terms include: breeder. (See _straight_.)

Heterosexism: The assumption or illusion that identifying as heterosexual and having sexual and romantic attractions only to members of the other sex (than oneself) is good and acceptable, and that other sexual identities and attractions are bad and unacceptable. The assumption that anyone is straight whose sexual orientation is not known, usually coupled with a "blindness" to the existence and concerns of LesBiGays.

Identity: How one thinks of oneself. One's internal self, as opposed to what others observe or think about one. (Social Label, Stigma)
Label: How someone else sees or thinks of one. To be seen or not to be seen as such. Living in the eyes of the other.

But, there is also a sex difference in aggression .
Males tend to show far more "direct" aggression such as pushing, hitting and punching. Females tend to show more "indirect" (or "relational", covert) aggression. This includes gossip, exclusion, and bitchy remarks. It could be said that to punch someone in the face or to wound them physically requires an even lower level of empathy than a verbal snipe.

***
Nederlands:
Het woord Gender is bijna niet te vertalen, maar het duidt op mannelijkheid en vrouwelijkheid in een bepaalde betekenis: niet als biologische gegevens (sekse / geslacht), maar als identiteit en sociale rol. Gender is dan de sociaal-culturele rol die verwacht wordt van mensen met een bepaald geslacht.
Dit brengt ons bij het belangrijke verband dat het 'aan de maatstaven voldoen' heeft te maken met 's mans uiterlijk, sex appeal en intelligentie en dit heeft dus weer te maken met (het hebben van) de penis (in erectie).

Kortom,
er wordt een viriel soort mannelijkheid geconstrueerd. Een mannelijkheid die te maken heeft met een gespierd lichaam, met ratio (zelden tot nooit zul je in een schoonheidsbijlage in een vrouwenblad lezen hoe je je intelligentie kunt verbeteren) en met potentie, kracht en een soort woestheid.
Al deze eigenschappen worden bovendien gesteld als iets dat al in elke man zit en enkel maar 'ontketend' hoeft te worden met een wonderbra... Een essentialistisch idee over hoe 'de man' diep van binnen in elkaar zou zitten. Mannen 'zijn nou eenmaal zo' wild, krachtig, intelligent en stijlvol.
Maar wie in een openbare biblioteek op zoek gaat naar boeken over man-vrouwverhoudingen vindt er titels als 'De oorlog tegen vrouwen', 'Vrouwen die teveel lief hebben', 'Liefde is geen mannenwerk', 'Een schrale troost: ervaringen van vrouwen met mannen', 'Vrijen met mannen, kan dat?', 'Mannen... hopeloos', 'En nu is het uit: over echtscheiding en vrouwenonderdrukking',...

Het profiel dat deze bestsellers oproepen is dat van domme, onbetrouwbare, harteloze, ijdele en gewelddadige mannen tegenover intelligente, empatische, gevoelige vrouwen met maar één slechte eigenschap, namelijk dat ze 'veel te goed' zijn. Dit komt door het verlangen van 'vrouwen' naar verzorging door een man. Dit is iets essentieels van vrouwen en onafhankelijkheid van vrouwen lijkt een soort van 'contradictio in terminis'. Onafhankelijke vrouwen bestaan niet, 'to be taken care of' is wat vrouwen echt willen.

In het zoeken naar mannelijkheid komen vrouwen bij herhaling en ter afwisseling twee typen tegen: de nieuwe man en de wildeman.
Beide typen zijn in Amerika 'uitgevonden'.

De nieuwe man is de zachtaardige, gevoelige man, die teder en sterk tegelijk is. Het is de man die de 'vrouwelijke kant' in zichzelf is gaan ontdekken. De wildeman is de man die in eenheid met de natuur zijn innerlijke oerkracht heeft herontdekt. Dat gebeurt idealiter met nachtelijke rituelen die ontleend zijn aan de natuurvolken, en die samen met andere oermannen worden beleefd.

Maar het idee van mannelijkheid is kompleet inbeelding.
Carole Vance toont in haar artikel "Social construction theory and sexuality". dat ook seksueel verlangen in feite een sociale constructie is. 'Object choice' van een individu, ofwel zijn of haar hetero-, homo- danwel biseksualiteit, is niet iets inherent en intrinsiek aan het individu, maar is een historische en culturele constructie. Zij stelt ook dat de geschiedenis van onze cultuur laat zien hoe mannelijkheid iets is dat door mannen op hun weg naar 'echte mannelijke volwassenheid veroverd ('acquired'), bereikt ('achieved') moet worden en waarin ze in ingewijd ('initiated into') worden.

Sina-Aline Geißler constateert tenslotte in "How to Build a Macho" dat mannelijkheid geconstrueerd wordt door middel van sociale discoursen over "Lust en Unterwerfung" die alle culturele uitingen beslaan, 'from music videos, poetry, and tangolyrics to sports, beer commercials, and psychotherapy'.

Maar een culturele revolutie is nodig want ook de man onderdrukt zichzelf zwaar. Vanuit zijn ideaal van mannelijkheid ontkent hij een groot deel van zichzelf, met name het grootste deel van zijn emoties.
Onzekerheden, angsten, verdriet, rouw, tederheid, liefde voor een ander dan zijn vrouw (bv. vriendschappelijk houden van zonder zweep), twijfel, behoefte aan lichamelijkheid, sex anders dan neuken of met een ander dan zijn vrouw, zoals knuffelen met een vriend, behoefte aan geborgenheid, gewoon knus in de zetel met een dekentje en een koekje, veiligheid en bescherming... hij durft al dit soort dingen nog niet eens tot zichzelf toe te laten, laat staan dat hij ze naar een ander toe kan uiten. Een man leidt een zeer leeg en zinloos leven.

Niet zelden ontbreekt echter bij mensen het vermogen (of de bereidheid) om de beelden over mannen en vrouwen als een interpretatie van de werkelijkheid te zien, in plaats van als de werkelijkheid zelf !

Hier komt bij, dat de opvattingen over wat en hoe mannen en vrouwen zijn, ook hun neerslag vinden in de wijze waarop mensen zichzelf, als man of vrouw, zien en ervaren. Veranderingen in die opvattingen raken daardoor dadelijk ook ons zelfbeeld op emotionele wijze.

Maar wat is beeldvorming in termen van mannelijkheid en vrouwelijkheid ?
Het is het, impliciet of expliciet, bewust of onbewust, maken van onderscheid tussen mannen en vrouwen, door het aan hen toeschrijven van verschillende waarden en kwaliteiten, in gedrag, denkbeelden, gevoelens, waardeoordelen en verwachtingen.

Met behulp van deze beeldvorming worden normen in stand gehouden en opnieuw geproduceerd. Deze ideologie blijkt een ernstig belemmerende factor te zijn voor het bereiken van gelijkheid tussen mannen en vrouwen.
Voor de mechanismen waarmee het sekseverschil in stand wordt gehouden zijn de termen "de macht van de vanzelfsprekendheid" en "de macht van de dubbele moraal" geintroduceerd, zijnde: het systematische verschil in waarneming, beoordeling, waardering, bejegening en beleving van vrouwen en mannen (of het vrouwelijke en het mannelijke), met als gevolg dat de bestaande asymmetrie in de orde tussen de seksen wordt bevestigd.

Zolang mannen en vrouwen gezien blijven worden als dragers, respectievelijk draagsters van de traditioneel aan hen toegeschreven waarden en kwaliteiten, blijft de drang bestaan om dat verschil op de een of andere manier in beeld te brengen.

Daarom zijn speerpunten nodig om het sociale en culturele gedragspatroon van de man en de vrouw te doorboren ten einde te komen tot de uitbanning van vooroordelen, van gewoonten en van alle gebruiken, die zijn gebaseerd op de stereotype rollen van mannen en vrouwen.

Het meer betrekken van mannen (in hetero-relaties) bij de opvoeding van hun kinderen en een systematische domesticatie dient de gewenste situatie waartoe het beeldvormingsbeleid ten slotte moet leiden, is die waarin sekse geen rol meer speelt als maatschappelijk ordeningsbeginsel.

***
French:
Pour s'établir, ce discours affirme que le mouvement des femmes a réalisé l'égalité des sexes et que, grâce à la lutte menée par les féministes, en quelques décennies les femmes ont rattrapé les hommes dans pratiquement tous les domaines.

Elles auraient toutefois dépassé les limites de l'équité et relégué les hommes au second rang, même dans les champs qui leur étaient traditionnellement réservés. La situation entre les hommes et les femmes serait donc totalement renversée au profit des femmes.

Voici deux exemples de ce genre de propos qui laissent entendre que partout les filles ont déclassé les garçons.
Le premier extrait est tiré de l'article " Pitié pour les garçons ", publié dans l'Actualité (février 1992), et le second est paru dans The Vancouver Sun (1er mars 2000) : " Être un homme n'est vraiment plus quelque chose de très intéressant", constate un sexologue à la clinique de psychologie Hochelaga et professeur à l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Aux filles, tout semble désormais possible. On leur demande, on les supplie même de faire une carrière scientifique. D'être pilotes d'avion, pompiers, policiers. […] Pour les garçons, rien ne va plus ! Ils semblent appelés à jouer désormais les seconds violons. Être petit garçon semble complètement "out" aujourd'hui.

De plus en plus, la société québécoise n'en a plus que pour ses filles, espoirs de demain, incarnations vivantes d'un monde meilleur et d'un avenir radieux, alors que le garçon est dénoncé comme l'héritier coupable de siècles de violence, de guerre et de destruction.

Homme ou femme, nous avons en nous même les deux polarités, de même que nous avons des hormones masculines et féminines.
Ces deux polarités s'attirent mutuellement, tels des aimants, force électromagnétique erotique d'attraction qui maintient le monde en forme jusque dans l'intimité atomique, en désir, sur la vibration de l'amour.
Notre but commun est d'unir en soi ces deux polarités et l'autre à l'extérieur m'y ramène irrémédiablement tel un miroir y conspirant, cependant nos corps et nos circuits d'énergies sont différents.
Nous oublions qu'il y a aimantation entre le corps physique de la femme et son propre animus psychique et celui de l'homme et son propre anima, et le propre corps de l'homme ou de la femme entre le pôle positif et le pôle négatif.

Et voilà que d'un seul coup, le portait a changé.
Le profil entier de la victime a changé de sexe. Les garçons piétinent, disent les recherches. Dans toute l'Amérique du Nord, ils ont du retard sur les filles dans la plupart des sujets. Ils abandonnent plus jeunes l'école, ils sont accusés d'être à l'origine de la flambée de violence dans les écoles, ils gobent Ritalin et Prozac et ils se suicident à un rythme alarmant.
Et les filles ? C'est la vie en rose, depuis la maternelle jusqu'aux études supérieures, écoles publiques ou privées, écoles mixtes ou non - le monde leur appartient ".
Le message est clair, tout va terriblement mal pour les hommes.

Cette perte d'identité glisse facilement vers le sentiment que le mâle lui-même est devenu inutile. Même son rôle de reproducteur devient très aléatoire...
Dans le rapport amoureux, l'homme ne saurait plus comment se comporter devant l'autre sexe, comment être un homme, et cela parce que les femmes ne sauraient plus elles-mêmes ce qu'elles attendent d'un homme, comme l'expriment cet extrait : " l'identité masculine est touchée.

"Les gars disent : Que faut-il être : rose ? Mauve ? Macho ? On ne sait plus ce que les femmes veulent."

Les hommes et les femmes seraient aussi violents les uns que les autres.

***
German: Geschlechterrollen im Argentinischen Tango

Melina Sedó :

Dazu wäre erst einmal die Frage zu klären,
was Macho eigentlich bedeutet.
Das spanische Wörterbuch gibt uns hier die Auskunft:
1. männlich,
2. Männchen (biologisch),
3. ganzer Kerl.
Nach Nau-Klapwijk (1999) wird in Argentinien mit diesem Begriff ein Mann bezeichnet, der zwar in der Öffentlichkeit dominant auftritt, sich jedoch über sein Verhältnis zur Frau definiert: er beschützt und ehrt sie, er umwirbt und erobert sie. Damit übernimmt er eine Rolle, die zwischen der eines Verführers und eines Vaters liegt.
„Ser macho bedeutet in Argentinien „Mann sein“, mit allen Privilegien, aber auch allen Pflichten. In der Öffentlichkeit ist er der Chef. Da gibt es keine Diskussion. Beide wissen das.
Aber „Mann sein“ heißt in Argentinien nicht nur eine Frau zu haben, sondern auch für sie die Verantwortung zu tragen, sie zu schützen. Ein Juwel im Leben, für das es sich lohnt, Tag und Nacht zu kämpfen: Eine schöne Frau.
Und so ist der Machismo in Argentinien keineswegs verpönt. Im Gegenteil: Ser macho ist ein auszeichnendes Attribut.“

Daß der argentinische Macho ein hauptsächlich öffentliches Phänomen ist, bestätigen alle passionierten Argentinien-Reisenden: Zuhause ist die Frau oft diejenige, welche die Verantwortung übernimmt und „die Hosen anhat“ oder die den Mann leiden läßt.
Dieser Widerspruch kommt auch in zahlreichen Tangotexten zum Tragen.
Einerseits ist die Frau etwas, was „genommen“ wurde, andererseits ist der Mann von der Frau abhängig. Gerade in der Frühzeit, wo viele Einwanderer frauenlos oder getrennt von ihren Frauen nach Argentinien kamen, blühte die Prostitution. Frauen waren ein Handelsgut, das verkauft, gekauft und oft mit Gewalt genommen wurd. Sie mußten sich in ihre Rolle fügen. (Schweizer, 1991)
Frauen waren Opfer, gänzlich passiv, die den Mann schmücken sollten oder verkommen konnten: „Sie war nur eine Chromleiste am Nobelschlitten eines Angebers“, sagt ein Tango.
Andere bezeichnen die Frau als „Sumpfblume“ , „Arme Dirne“ oder „kleines Vorstadtmädel“.
Daneben gibt es ebenso zahlreiche Tangos, die den verlassenen oder betrogenen Mann schildern, den, an dem sich die Frau gerächt hat oder den, der von einem Konkurrenten ausgestochen wurde. Oft hat er die Frau auch weggeschickt, weil sie ihn angelogen oder betrogen hat. Nun, da er seine Peinigerin los ist,
müßte er eigentlich glücklich sein...
aber das ist er nicht,
denn ohne Frau ist er kein Mann.

***

Tra i libri che ho letto di recente, Se questo è un uomo del torinese Primo Levi è senza dubbio quello che mi ha interessato maggiormente.

In questo diario delle sue terribili esperienze, Levi ci descrive con grande forza espressiva il dramma di migliaia di persone, costrette dalla follia e dalla perversione, a subire le più disumane umiliazioni e sofferenze.


Dietrich Bonhoeffer :

Wer bin ich ?
Bin ich das wirklich, was andere von mir sagen ?
Oder bin ich nur das, was ich selbst von mir weiß ?

 

 

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