Last modified: 29 sept 2008- Scroll for videoclips
Dancing Beyond Boundaries ?
Social dance & social realities
As Argentine tango was originally an erotic dance that could
only be danced in a bordello and only prostitutes were involved, the
role of women in tango was spontaneously related to the brothel and
a lower social class setting. For an acceptable woman, to dance tango
was out of the question. Later, tango became related to a more esthetic
social context and became a very much acceptable lifestyle. Tango's
sensuality however, is still overshadowed by our contemporary ambiguity.
In today's science of sexy reframing, things are looking sexier
than ever. Dita Von Teese, perhaps the most famous burlesque dancer
in the world, included garter belts, panties, and bras in her collection
(with an unsurprising nod to retro fashions). The Wonderbra-star says
of her saucy drop-dead sexy styles:
“Lingerie shouldn’t be something you just put on for your
lover; you should do it for you…It’s not about seducing
men, it’s about embracing womanhood.”
More Tango Reflections, video illustrated:
interpretations on Gallo Ciego
the tango rhythm
is a physical need
Milena Plebs Ezequiel Farfaro clips
videoclips videolessen updated
Carlos Gavito and Maria Plazaola
Showclips Forever Tango - great milongueros
There are two basic kinds of reframes: context reframing and
content reframing. Content reframing is changing the meaning of a
situation, or you can reframe the situation into another context...
Oriental Belly Dance - Although there is a
big cultural difference between Buenos Aires and Cairo, Argentina
and Egypt, similarities can be noticed in the public opinion and the
authorities attitude towards a woman's dancing.
In the beginning, the Oriental belly dance was a social dance
inside the closed house between women, at family festivals like weddings,
thus not intented as a seduction dance, perhaps fulfilling a ritual
or spiritual function, an act of happiness. Dance was just something
people spontaneously did.
Yet, the perception of the act of dancing changes when the situation
gets mixed with the opposite sex. In that context it's a tool for
seduction, a titillating performance for non-family men or an act
of provocation when obvious foreigners are involved, human exposure
as a type of paid entertainment in a public setting. The frame is
But the dancing is in this not the crucial thing, it is the
attractive woman. If a man is performing the dance, it will not bewitch
the audience so intense, there will be no general arousal of the public
mind and the dancer will not get a bad reputation, he does not embodies
the fantasies of society as it is. These fantasies are a source of
income and create employment opportunities. It's a drive behind entertainment,
enlarging the exotic appeal of the dance shows and making the spectacle
Les danseuses, qui rivalisent toutes de beauté et
d’élégance, viennent des quatre coins du monde,
malgré leur jeunesse,
une expérience et un professionnalisme de premier ordre. Elles
portent des noms chantant et évocateurs, mais cet univers de
mille et une nuits n’est pas de tout repos, un travail quotidien
acharné génère un show bourré d’énergie,
insufflant une électricité communicative à tous
More on Artistic Egyptian Classical Oriental Dance,
Egypte Orientale, les danses du ventre:
Shira Oryantal History Cultural Context Styles
Samyra Cursussen buikdansen / Raks Sharki
Aziza Sa'id's Middle Eastern BellyDance
Aziza Quicktime movies Candelabra dance
Histoire Very Old Bellydance videoclips
Raks Sharki Sandra BellydanceClips Download
Aida Cursussen buikdansen / Raks Sharki
Bellydance Superstars and the Desert Roses
Spectacles de danse Maghrebien
Dancer Shooq Bellydance Museum
Canzone World Music
Online CD DVD VIDEO
Amulya Oriental Belly Dance Choreography VideoClips
Rana Bellydance workout videos Demo Clips performances
Raja Amari's movie Satin Rouge touches in a subtle
way the ambiguity of acting out reality in front of viewers. As the
performing arts uses the artist's own body as a medium, the exhibit
can also be called entertainment or a misconduct. Bodily postures
express, reinforce and challenge inner attitudes and the audience
features as a participant.
SATIN ROUGE - Raja Amari SatinRouge Movie Trailer Danseuse de Cabaret
Danzón - Julia Solorzano (María
Rojo) is a middle-aged single mother who works as a telephone receptionist.
She shares supportive friendships with her female colleagues with
whom she frequents dance halls. It is clear that dancing is the highlight
of her life. She relishes the strict codes of conduct prescribed by
the danzón (popular dance hall), and in particular the formal
respect with which her regular dance partner Carmelo (Daniel Regis)
treats her. Carmelo is fiftyish, always immaculately dressed in a
chic white suit and hat. Oddly (or not so oddly if you think that
the realistic "Danzon" has discreet elements of fantasy
and symbolism), Julia knows next to nothing about Carmelo, whom she
meets only at the dance hall. "He's married, all men are married"
says a friend, but Julia discounts this. When invited to dance by
a young man, she refuses him, commenting to her friend Silvia that
a woman should never dance with a younger partner. When Carmelo doesn't
appear for three consecutive dance meetings, Julia becomes worried
and, suspecting he may have returned to Veracruz, his city of origin,
travels there to find him.
Julia quickly befriends a transvestite Suzy (Tito Vasconcelos) and
a group of prostitutes who help her in her quest to find Carmelo.
Suzy encourages Julia to emphasize her femininity in her self-presentation,
with a brighter wardrobe, jewelry and make up. Julia, donning high
heels and red lipstick, is simultaneously more vulnerable to a threatening,
unwelcome male gaze and a pleasant sexually charged male encounter.
Dressed for the first time in her new attire, she is both harassed
by intrusive workmen and approached by an attractive young man with
whom she will have an enjoyable fling. She is now free to act outside
the conventions prohibiting a woman from dancing with a younger man.
Danzón (México, 1991) was directed
by María Novaro (1951), Mexico's most important feminist moviemaker.
The film deals with the attempts of a middle-class working woman and
single mother to survive in Mexico City, which she does in large measure
through her commitment to escaping into the world of ballroom dancing.
In the mid '70s, María Novaro studied Sociology at the National
Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) during which time she participated
in a feminist filmmaking collective as consultant on the production
of various documentaries. Novaro's most valuable contribution is to
have definitively rescued the protagonist Mexicana from earlier simplistic
and stifling stereotyping such as suffering mothers and fallen 'malas
mujeres' (bad women).
Novaro herself, whilst clarifying that she does not want to be associated
with, nor limited by, any one ideological stance, has stated that
she considers herself to be feminist in her personal life but not
in her work. The high profile lead actress of Danzón, and subsequent
Mexican congresswoman, María Rojo, does however consider herself,
her work in Danzón and the film itself to be feminist.
The story goes that tango started in the brothel, moved to
Paris and then became an acceptable dance. Changed the social conduct
codes or was tango redefined? Was it given a new, maybe ambivalent
They say that in the begining, tango was danced between men,
in the corners of any red-light district of Buenos Aires, in the patios
of the old conventillos or in the old slaughter houses (mataderos).
At that time, the tango with women was only danced in the brothels
or in the houses with "easy life" girls known as las
casas de las chicas de vida ligera. Argentineans say that respectable
women could not dance tango because it was a prohibited, it was a
prostibularia dance, una danza prohibida. For them
the tango did not exist. Since Argentine tango was originally an erotic
dance that could only be danced in a bordello and only prostitutes
were involved, the role of women in tango was spontaneously related
to the brothel and a lower social class setting. For an acceptable
woman, to dance tango was out of the question. Later, tango became
related to a more esthetic social context and became acceptable. Tango's
erotic origin however, is still a delicate matter, it is still characterized
by a mixture of opposite feelings and attitudes.
Especially in tangoshows, dance involves taking on a role,
revealing a character and playing a play, like enacting the power
of the prostitute metaphor which is in stark contrast to the ideal
of marriage. The prostitute metaphor is first applied in the Hebrew
Testament. The marriage and prostitute metaphors continue in the New
Testament. The prostitute was seen as having magical powers. She seduced
men and lured them with her wiles – through the clothing she
wore, through her physical and social charms, and through her cosmetics
and perfumes. The dance of sexual interplay between man and prostitute
was also marked by tolerance of violence toward the prostitute. The
sexuality of the prostitute embodies the evil nature of female sexuality,
and a woman's potential to hold a disturbing power over a man in the
sexual realm. The prostitute was viewed as a temptress, who lured
men through their carnal desires. It seems that in it, some aggression
is concealed. That image of tango very much alive on TV dance shows,
and the number of reality dance competitions keeps increasing. These
television images, show us tango as a sexy dance, but is tango sexy?
It is obvious that Argentine tango is a sensual dance, but
what is sensual? Is it the same as sexy? Or sensitive?
According to the dictionary, sensual is relating
to or affecting any of the senses or a sense organ; sensory. Sensuous:
highly appreciative of the pleasures of sensation. Sensual is all
that reports to a sense, all and everyone existing in human life.
Sensuality, also sensualness, means all that reports to any forms
of sense one that can recognize, say, “sense” it.
Sensualism relates to the search for beauty,
amazing beauty, and the cruelty and pain that often accompanies that
beauty. In tango, Borges refers to the beauty of the panther, the
leopard or jaguar. Cruelty is a part of the beauty.
Sensuality refers to subtle, interior
sensations. Such as, a tattooer who falls in love with a girl after
just seeing her foot, as in Junichiro Tanizaki’s story, "Shisei" (Sisei,
Si-Sei, The Tattooer, Tattoo, Irezumi). Much "sensuality" can
be found in Japanese literature: Yukio Mishima, Yasunari Kawabata,
Sexyness, sexiness, sex appeal or being sexy
is about an exterior appearance. It can be related to self-perception,
self-awareness, self consciousness, ego. A feeling of self-consciousness
occurs when we realize that we are being watched or observed, the
feeling that "everyone is looking" at us. When feeling self-conscious,
one becomes aware of even the smallest of one's own actions, self-objectification.
Much of human sexual attractiveness is governed by physical attractiveness
which Ariadne von Schirach calls "Der Tanz um die Lust",
wrapped up in desirability. Attractiveness involves the impact one's
appearance has on the senses, especially in the beginning of a relationship:
Visual perception (how the other looks). Audition (how the other's
voice sounds). Olfaction (how the other smells, naturally or artificially;
the wrong smell may be repulsive). Olfactory signals, or smell, can
influence the perception of attractiveness. Physical attractiveness
is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person
or a group, race, or type of people, as attractive or beautiful.
Sensitivity, sensitiveness, sensible, sensibility:
mental responsiveness and awareness, refined sensitivity to pleasurable
or painful impressions. Sensibility seems to have a particular
literary sense, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It refers
to a cluster of attributes, amongst which you can include the display
of "elegant and graceful" emotions and tastes, exhibiting
a careful attention to detail, etiquette. Hard to please, demanding.
Selected YouTube TangoVideos:
1. TangoClass - instructional vídeos - TangoLessons
2. Milonga and Candombe dancing
3. Tangovals clips - Tango waltzing - Valse - Tangowals
4. Various Great Tangoclips Online fast internet access
5. Fast Links to Selected Tango Dance Vidio Updates
6. Musicality & Humor in Tangodance - videoclips
Gay tango has changed the typical tango scenery. Since gay couples
were granted marriage-like status, Buenos Aires has suddenly become
the gay mecca of South America, rivalling Rio de Janeiro as the traditional
destination for gay tourists from the United States and Europe. Neighbourhoods
like fashionable Palermo and Recoleta, are known for being safe and
accepting places for gays and lesbians. Gay men and women can dance
without drawing uncomfortable stares.
One can say that Gay tango has changed the typical macho image
of tango. Yet, the image of the male dancer has always carried machismo
stereotyping. And, in tango men often dance together. Men invented
the tango dance technique, including the female part. In fact, a tanguero
has to know the follower's movements from inside out to be capable
to guide tanguera - o. A reference is Antonio Todaro.
He had a special fondness for dancing as follower and as an innovator,
he had fun expanding the follower's part. He is also famous for his
skilled Tango Doble Frente / double front (tango al reves - inversed/reversed)
in which the woman has her back to the man and the man embraces her
around the waist, so both dancers face the front/public, it is a very
historical style of tango invented by the popular milongueros of the
1940s. All steps that one dances in the regular, or "derecho"
position, can be danced al reves. Men created ballet too, yet dancing
is now seen as a female art in which masculine dancers assist the
women. Men's contemporary role seems to be more directed into guiding
Click for videoclips
With these day's Tango Tourism, del mundillo tanguero is
the main export for cultural consumption of Buenos Aires. Many foreigners
visit the tango festivals, so getting a public of 170.000 people.
Click here for a trip to Buenos Aires
Dance houses or milongas are very respectable, having strict
rules called etiquette, ment to create an artificial mis-en-scene.
Mise en scène means literally "putting into the scene" or "setting
in scene." In the boliches de tango, single men are sitting
on one side, single women on the other and couples in the back. You
make eye contact with a partner and get up as the music starts. It
is the beginning of a tanda, a set of 4 or 5 similar tangos,
milongas or valses. During the first number, streams of people fill
the dancefloor. Guiding means moving and keeping the woman at the
outside of the dancefloor, to the tables, as near as possible to the
sitting public. So she has some space to move and gets no feet kicks.
An unaware dancer gets driven in the center, gets stuck. When the
first number of the tanda stops, one is supposed to stand still and
talk. Social dance is a danceform where sociability and socializing
are the primary focuses of the dancing. On the dance floor, peculiarly
the conversation piece is important. At the end of a tanda, the sound
of the cortina comes like a bel. Now, the floor must be empty to make
new eye contact possible. The act of watching is omnipresent.
Europeans who go to Buenos Aires to dance the "passionate
tango" in the milongas, may find the formal codes and behavior
rules, such as the strict separation between men, women and couples,
a bit outdated. Others will find it nostalgic, as if concealing mystic
darkness, as in the old days of Catholicism. A history of social dance
is a history of morality and as 83% of the Argentinians are Catholics,
the setting reflects some Catholic morality.
For a single Catholic woman it isn’t always easy to make
the step to tango dancing, tango with it's, nearly sacramental, intimacy
and passion. But, quite true, dance portrays the beauty of the person
as made in the image of God.
Regarding Tango and the Theology of the Body, click here:
Innocence and wrongdoing
The English word whore, referring to (female) prostitutes,
is taken from the Old English word hora (from the Indo-European root
ka meaning "to like, desire") but usage of that word is
widely considered pejorative and prostitute is a less value-laden
term. It could also come from the Islamic term houri, the name for
an attentive female virgin in the afterlife, but this derivation is
unlikely given the presence of cognates of the Old English word in
other Germanic languages. On the other hand, in Germany most prostitutes'
organizations deliberately use the word Hure (whore) since they feel
that prostitute is an unnecessary euphemism for something not in need
of euphemisms. The term sex worker is becoming the label of choice
in Australia. Prostitutes may also be called hookers.
In Hebrew the meaning of the word fornication is "broader"
than adultery. To fornicate or to play the whore,
becomes virtually synonymous with engagement in idolatry, the
worship of idols, images that are not God. No metaphor, especially
as it symbolizes the practice of idolatry, is more powerful than the
woman as whore, in all of the captivating sexual imagery it symbolized.
Innocence. In contrast to ignorance, innocence is
generally viewed as a positive term, connoting a blissfully positive
view of the world, in particular one where the lack of knowledge stems
from a lack of wrongdoing, whereas greater knowledge comes from doing
wrong. This connotation may be connected with a popular false etymology
explaining "innocent" as meaning "not knowing"
(Latin noscere). Children are usually considered to be innocent and
to gradually lose this attribute through maturity by gaining knowledge
of the adult world. This view is common in regards to sexuality, though
seeing that as a wrong thing is a disputed idea, which some argue
stem from Christianity and other religion's classification. Around
the enlightenment period of the eighteenth century, the conceptions
of childhood changed. Society adopted the idea of the "blank
slate" and beginning life in a state of unconsciousness.
Pour faire la danseuse
Like industrialization, the history of prostitution in Argentina
offers sobering insights, in fact "el comercio carnal" has
been legal in Argentina since the beginning of republic. Prostitution
laws were the first type of labor legislation enacted, even before
the basic legal codes of the country were formed. The governing officials
viewed prostitución as a danger to the Argentine national identity
with the potential to destroy not only the family but also the medical
health of the country. It was for this reason that laws were enacted
which legalized prostitution but forced the commercial sex workers
to live in special burdeles-houses, undergo supervised medical examination
and have their inheritance and business rights restricted.
Why did so many girls turn to this quecos-business? Prostitution
was a response to poverty because of the hunger, religious and political
persecution that many European Franchucha had faced in their former
homelands, and upon arriving in Buenos Aires, this was a reasonable
trade to make for the freedom from poverty they had endured in prior
realities. The by human traffic imported "Esclavas Blancas" served
a dual economic function, one for their sexual and dancing skills,
and second for stimulating their customers to drink alcohol, champagne.
Today, the same pattern is repeating. Women are brought to
Buenos Aires by a pimp, always with the same behavior method: the
women are deceived with the promise of a legal work; in the destination
place their documents are snatched and are confined to live under
the rules of rape, punishments and abuse of drugs. Prostitution as
part of the organized crime at a world-wide level has in Argentina
On Morality & Aesthetics
Moral codes are often complex statements of right and wrong.
Although some people might think that the moral code is simple, rarely
there is anything simple about one's morals or ethics or for that
matter judgment of others' morals. The difficulty lies in the fact
that morals are often part of a religion and more often than
not about culture codes. The term Morality is often
used to refer to a system of principles and judgments shared by cultural,
religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which humans
subjectively determine whether given actions are right or wrong. These
concepts and beliefs are often generalized and codified by a culture
or group, and thus serve to regulate the behavior of its members.
Conformity to such codification may also be called morality, and the
group may depend on widespread conformity to such codes for its continued
existence. In any society there is a divergence between the notion
of how we ought to behave and the reality of how we behave, so there
is a difference between hypothetical punditry and real morality. Meta-ethics
asks strange questions such as: Do the terms "straight",
"gay", "fuck", and "slut" make sense?
How do we justify the existence of good, or is it all relative
and is morality simply a statement of one's preferences ?
The word Aesthetics however, was not widely
used until the beginning of the 19th Century. Its use comes from the
German ästhetisch or French esthétique,
(both from the Greek meaning a perceiver or sensitive). It meant "the
science which treats of the conditions of sensuous perception".
When aesthetics was established as a field of study by German philosophers
in the 18th century, the emphasis was on beauty, taste, transcendance
and the sublime. Aesthetically appealing objects were beautiful in
and of themselves. The meaning of aesthetic as an adjective may be
illuminated by comparing it to anaesthetic. If something is anaesthetic,
it tends to dull the senses or cause sleepiness. Aesthetic may be
thought of as anything that spontaneous tends to stimulate the senses,
that which appeals to the senses.
After the 1976-1983 dictatorship, democracy was restored and
people became aware of the importance of being respectful about human
rights and being tolerant toward different ideas, ideologies, sexual
orientation, and ethnic and racial differences.
The Argentina Homosexual Community, the country's first gay-rights
organization, was created in 1984. In 2002, a turning point for stereotypical
sex roles in Argentina, the city became the first in Latin America
to pass a civil union law, giving gays and lesbians most of the rights
enjoyed by married couples.
Buenos Aires is viewed as one of the most progressive cities
in South America. The city is in the midst of a tourism boom since
the Argentine peso lost two-thirds of its value shortly after the
country's 2001 economic collapse. More than 6.5 million tourists visited
Buenos Aires in the first 11 months of 2003, a 38-per-cent increase
over the same period in 2002. An added attraction for all visitors
is the legendary good looks of Argentinians. Small wonder that the
sex tourism industry for both heterosexuals and gays is booming, fuelled
by demand from an increasing number of tourists and an economic depression
that has induced many young people to work in escort agencies. The
number of escort agencies is growing, and many students from the interior
of the country are financing their studies in Buenos Aires this way.
Acompañantes escort list here
Behind an image, is concealed
Buenos Aires is often called the Paris of South America, mainly
because of its architectural image. Regarding the man-woman relation
however, it is much different from the Parisian mind. Especially at
the present difficult times, the Argentine Catholic church has focused
its advocacy in three areas: ferm opposition to nearly all forms of
modern contraception, to sex education, and to abortion. At the heart
of this opposition lie views about women’s role in the family,
and about maternity and reproduction as key parts of women’s
identity. Increasingly, however, Catholic church officials have sought
to justify their faith-based opposition to contraception and abortion
in less doctrinal and more “pragmatic” terms, such as
“scientific” proof that condoms prevent neither pregnancy
nor sexually transmitted infections or nationalist concerns with population
size and growth.
Historically, a central part of the identity of the political
elite in Argentina has been that of a frontier nation to be colonized
and populated by Caucasian immigrants from Europe. The most famous
expression of this identity is the phrase to rule is to populate
attributed to Juan Bautista Alberdi, a central figure in Argentina’s
political history known as the “father of the Argentine constitution.”
Over the years, the refrain “to rule is to populate” has
been used by various political actors to justify the limitations on
women’s reproductive autonomy and rights, by reference to women’s
essential role as childbearers and as such tools for population
growth. Across the South American region, many governments and legislators
have historically declared their opposition to modern birth control
methods, usually with reference to Catholic church doctrine. However,
in Argentina the government went so far as to prohibit the sale of
all contraceptives for several decades in the late twentieth century,
an extreme display of opposition to birth control even by regional
standards. This pro-natalist approach has historically set Argentina
apart from the rest of South America, so much so that Argentina in
1996 was the only country in the region to provide no public support
of any kind for access to contraception.
It is estimated that in Argentina episodes of violence against
women exist in 1 of each 5 couples, at different degrees... 42% of
the female homicide victims (whose author is discovered) were assassinated
by their couples. 37% of the women battered by their marriage partner
have been more than 20 years suffering those abuses. According to
information, it is estimated that 25% of the Argentine women are victims
of violence and that 50% will undergo some violent situations at some
moment of their life. More affected group is from 25 to 34 years old.
Although no formal studies have been made by the Argentine government,
based on the general impoverishment of the population and the report
elaborated by UNICEF in 2001 that the situation of women in prostitution
has gotten worse considerably. All women in situation of prostitution,
including those who vindicate themselves as sexual workers have been
object of repeated abuses, illegal pressures and haltings by the police.
According to data of the National Institute of Statistics and
Census of 1997, the percentage of sexually active women between 15
to 49 years of age of the main cities that used contraceptive methods
varied between 53.2 and 64.6%. Among those with Unsatisfied Basic
Needs (poor), this rate was reduced to 43.5% to 54.1%. This indicates
a low level of use of contraceptives methods among poor women, that
the economic crisis and the absence of programs of reproductive health
have worsened. It is estimated that in Argentina, there are around
400,000 annual abortions, 37% of the pregnancies end up in abortion.
Adolescent pregnancy continues growing, 15.5% of children born alive
are from mothers under 20 years old.
In 2002, the Argentine congress enact meaningful reform, overcoming
vocal opposition from the Catholic church as well as several conservative
legislators to pass the National Law on Sexual Health and Responsible
Procreation. This law placed reproductive and sexual health on the
national political agenda for the first time in Argentina’s
history. Argentina’s health minister indicated publicly that
he thought women’s health and lives probably would improve if
abortion were decriminalized. In response, President Nestor
Kirchner (elected in 2003) was quick to emphasize that the
government’s position continued to be a “clear rejection
of the legalization of abortion.” However, Kirchner also defended
his government’s health minister against subsequent attacks
from the Catholic church, including by asking the Vatican to retire
a bishop who had suggested the health minister should be thrown into
the sea with a stone around his neck for his comments.
President Néstor Kirchner, while professing belief in
the Catholic faith, has often had a troubled relationship with the
hierarchy of the Church. Kirchner belongs to the center-left of Peronism
and has placed emphasis on certain progressive views that do not go
well with some conservative Catholics. The Argentine national government
passed laws and began a program to the effect of providing assistance
on sex education to all citizens, including the provision of free
oral contraceptives and condoms. The Church opposes artificial contraception
and has placed conditions on its acceptance of sex education in schools.
Nowadays , more than 50% of the Argentinean population is under
the line of poverty. There are 18,219,000 poor people, representing
51.4% of population in 2002, and 8,319,000 from total poor people
are children and adolescents. Citizens find it very difficult to access
to public health services, justice and education and to the benefits
of social security including retirement. Social benefits are focused
only on certain groups and those who apply to be beneficiaries must
qualify as addressees of an assistance based on their poverty status.
Argentine women live in a situation of serious unprotection of their
health, specially sexual and reproductive one. This situation affects
more seriously youngest and poor women with low education, and the
rural population. Another aspect that aggravates the unprotection
of sexual and reproductive rights is the persistence of cultural patterns
that, in Argentina, still maintain sexuality like a taboo subject,
in particular for women of popular sectors.
At the beginning of 2005, the minister of Health made public
his support for the legalization of abortion, and Kirchner's silence
on the matter angered the Church. In October 2005 conflict erupted
again as the Argentine Chamber of Deputies took steps to pass a Sex
Education Law that would encompass the whole school system (public
and private, including confessional schools), forcing educational
establishments to teach students about gender roles and contraception,
among other topics. The Archbishop of La Plata accused the state of
"promoting sexual corruption" and "inciting fornication,
lust and promiscuity". On the issue of the 1970's, - the Vatican
Embassy here kept a secret list of thousands of people who "disappeared"
during Argentina's dirty wars of the late 1970s - Kirchner called
attention on the many bishops "who weren't there while children
were disappearing" and who "gave [the sacrament of] confession
to torturers" of the Dirty War. During the 1976-1983 "Dirty
War", an estimated 30,000 people "disappeared". Members
of the opposition later qualified Kirchner as "Liberation Theology",
"unjust" and "intolerant".
Cleaning it up
Tolerance is a social, cultural and religious term applied
to the collective and individual practice of not persecuting those
who may believe, behave or act in ways of which one may not approve.
Authoritarian systems practice intolerance or zero tolerance , the
opposite of tolerance. Tolerance is seen as a more widely acceptable
term than "acceptance" and particularly "respect,"
where the application to controversial parties is concerned.
In the wider sociological sense, "tolerance" carries
with it the understanding that "intolerance" and conformity
breeds violence and social instability. "Tolerance" has
thus become the social term of choice to define the practical rationale
of permitting uncommon social practice and diversity. One only tolerates
people who are disliked for their differences.
Reframing, reframen Die Bedeutung, die ein Ereignis, eine
Aussage, ein Verhalten, ein Glaubenssatz, ein Auslöser, ein Reiz hat,
hängt vom Kontext, vom Rahmen ab, in den wir es hineinstellen, den
wir ihm geben. Frame ist der Rahmen. Reframing bedeutet, einen neuen Rahmen
zu konstruieren, eine neue Bedeutung zu geben. Ein Bild kann in einem neuen
Rahmen ganz anders aussehen und anders wirken. Wird ein Problem reframt,
dann bekommt dasselbe Ereignis, eine neue Bedeutung: neue Reaktionen und
neues Verhalten werden möglich. Reframing bezeichnet den Prozeß
des Umdeutens: des Einnehmens einer neuen Perspektive, einer neuen Art der
Wahrnehmung, einer neuen Interpretation
Generell wird in NLP nach (1) Kontext-, (2) Bedeutungs- und (3)
Inhalts-Reframing unterschieden (in manchen Fällen ist diese
Einteilung nicht brauchbar).
(1) Beim Kontext-Reframing wird direkt der Rahmen verändert. Ein Problem
wird einen neuen Rahmen gestellt, wo es als Problem verschwindet. Eine scheinbare
Ressource wird in einen neuen Rahmen gestellt, wodurch sie zum Problem wird.
Ein Beispiel für ersteres: Ein Vater hält seine Tochter für
"aggressiv". Man könnte den Vater fragen: in welchem Kontext
könnte "die Fähigkeit, sich durchzusetzen und sich zu wehren,
wenn sie belästigt wird" nützlich und willkommen sein?
(2) Beim Bedeutungs-Reframing (auch Inhalts-Reframing genannt) bleiben Kontext
und Situation erhalten, aber die Bedeutung wird verändert. Ein Beispiel:
Eine Mutter ärgert sich über die Fußabdrücke ihrer
Kinder am Teppich. "Fußabdrücke auf dem Teppich" haben
für Sie die Bedeutung: "Niemand respektiert mich." Eine neue
Bedeutung könnte sein: "Fußabdrücke auf dem Teppich"
haben die Bedeutung: "Liebe Menschen sind im Haus".
3) Der Ausdruck Inhalts-Reframing wird in NLP unterschiedlich verwendet.
Manche AutorInnen setzen diesen Ausdruck mit Bedeutungs-Reframing gleich:
es geht um die inhaltliche Bedeutung einer Aussage und die Veränderung
des Bedeutungs-Inhaltes. Für andere ist der Ausdruck Inhalts-Reframing
ein Überbegriff mit dem Kontext- und dem Bedeutungs-Reframing als Sonderfälle.
Beide Reframings können nämlich nur dann durchgeführt werden,
wenn der Coach den Inhalt (den Wortlaut) der problematischen Aussage kennt.
D.h. im Unterschied zu anderen NLP-Interventionen kann der Coach nicht alleine
auf der Prozeß-Ebene agieren, sondern muß auch gewisse Inhalte
des Problems kennen.