"Echoing Images: Couples in African Sculpture" remains at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street, (212)535-7710, through Sept. 5.The Metropolitan Museum of Art February 10 to September 5, 2004
Procreation, Passion and Partnership
Museum of Art
The introductory twosomes in
"Couples in African Sculpture,": life-size wood figures from
Madagascar carved for a funeral.
By HOLLAND COTTER
Published: February 13, 2004
found at: New
"Make love, not war" is one amendment I wouldn't mind seeing written into the United States Constitution, and into every other civic document across the world. The idea has a long history in art (as, of course, does its bellicose opposite). And it reigns supreme in the pulsing little valentine of an exhibition titled "Echoing Images: Couples in African Sculpture" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
In the show, as in life, a couple means many things, all of which in African art are intended to be read as primarily spiritual rather than libidinal: man and woman, woman and woman, man and man, parent and child, human and divine, human and animal. Some individuals are couples unto themselves, fusing contrasting and complementary traits. The general idea seems to be that when a concept of personal allegiance is nurtured by a society, rather than fettered or enforced, the possibility of some larger harmony increases, encouraging further growth and variety.
Metropolitan Museum of Art
A work known as "Primordial Couple" from Mali.
Art operates more or less the same way. At its most stimulating, it signifies an ideal of equilibrium that is built on and embraces all that is mutable, transformative, unconventional, intrepid, unknown. That's why some of us love it the way we do. And you would have to have a heart of stone not to love the 50 sculptures brought together for the Met's show, organized by Alisa LaGamma, associate curator in the museum's department of the arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, and installed in the Michael C. Rockefeller wing.
Let the infatuation begin with the sight of the three great images that introduce the show. The first, in a case by itself, is one of the Met's classic treasures, the carving of a seated man and woman called "Primordial Couple," created by a Dogon artist in Mali, possibly as early as the 16th century. Judging by size, this was a significant commission, probably for funerary display. Whatever its date and use, it is a model of balance enlivened by variation, structure surprised by pleasure.
The two figures, of equal height, sit erect, side by side, their faces candid and a little shy, like those of people in daguerreotypes. At the same time, the artist has interrupted symmetry in gentle ways. The heads tilt ever so slightly away from each other. The woman's hands lie flat on her knees, but the man's right arm loops up around her shoulders; his descending hand touches her breast.
And this play of sameness with telling departures continues on the back: the man carries a quiver suspended from his shoulders; the woman has a corresponding bundle, but hers is an infant in swaddling.
Beyond these figures, a standing twosome is holding court, perched on either side of a saucer-shaped throne from Cameroon. Although nearly nude, both man and woman — a king and his favored wife, most likely — look richly attired, as their skin is made entirely of blue glass beads. Such imported baubles carried heavy symbolic weight connected to fertility. But their massed sheen is what matters here. Like an encrustation of pearls on a plain-cut Balenciaga coat, they give stolid emblems of leadership a classy, labor-intensive verve.
The mood shifts to adagio in a pair of life-size figures from Madagascar, carved as commemorative sculptures for an important burial in the 19th or early 20th century. They were set up outdoors near the grave, where, the plan was, the elements would wear them away. By the time they were collected, erosion was far advanced. The lines of their sheathlike gowns are now barely visible; their faces seem to be suspended in perpetual dissolution, like those of Medardo Rosso's eternity-traveling children.
Just behind them, though, inside the enclosed space that houses the rest of the show, passion smolders and flares. Two smaller tomb figures, weather-warped like driftwood, are as animated as the others are still. They dance a pas de deux of longing, like partners in a tragic ballet.
Couples in African Sculpture.
The two lovers in a terra-cotta sculpture nearby are oblivious to them: fused in an embrace, they have eyes and bodies only for each other. The sexual heat generated by this sensational piece, found at the ancient site of Djenne-Jeno in Mali, is rare in traditional African art, though more restrained depictions of intimacy are common.
In another terra cotta from Djenne-Jeno, dated as early as the 12th century, two men kneel side by side, their arms fluidly intertwined so the hand of one figure clasps the shoulder of the other. The Djenne civilization also produced brass figurines of male couples, as did the Kulango people of Ivory Coast centuries later. The Kulango figures at the Met, small enough to work as amulets, tend toward androgyny. One pair is so intimately bonded that two bodies share a single head, in a true meeting of minds.
Female couples embrace on headrests made by the Luba peoples in Congo, for whom women are crucial mediators with the spirit world. And, in fact, many pairings in many African cultures represent close encounters between the human and the divine.
Such is the case in a Baule sculpture of piggybacked male figures, thought to depict a diviner on whom a summoned spirit has descended. A set of two-figure Yoruba brass sculptures from Nigeria have a similar vertical configuration, but with a different meaning. In one of them a male figure carries a female figure on his shoulders; in the other, a female carries a male. The heads of all the figures, outsize to suggest expansive force of knowledge, are identical.
These sculptures are made to be worn as insignias by male and female elders of the Osugbo society, an important judiciary body in the community. Within the society itself, distinctions based on sex are discarded. As Ms. LaGamma writes in a slender catalog full of tantalizing ideas, "Osugbo members try to obliterate dualities and, in doing so, to attain the ultimate level of enlightened consciousness."
Sometimes, it is true, dualities are hard to ignore. The splendid figures of a nude man and woman carved by a Mangbetu artist of Congo announce their difference loud and clear from across the room: their genitals are carefully highlighted with paint. In other essentials, though, the man and woman are as one. On the evidence of their elongated skulls and ornamental scars, they share the same taste for smart, expensive, look-at-us chic that provides the glue for many a contemporary New York marriage.
Finally, from the Mangbetu also comes a small, less aggrandizing piece, with paired figures and transcendental functions. It's a terra-cotta container made from two pots connected in the middle. Each is topped with a woman's head; the two heads face each other, their lips almost touching. The vessel is thought to have been used to dispense a hallucinogenic elixir, which gave its drinker the ability to see coming events and ensure the health of the community.
Whether the presence of the women, at once sensuous and restrained, helped inspire pacific visions, I don't know. But seeing them among the profoundly humane images in Ms. LaGamma's heartfelt show, I'm inclined to think so, and look forward with confidence to the collective future I imagine being sealed with their same-sex kiss.
Read Alsothe text below and Echoing Images
Couples in African Sculpture
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
February 10 to September 5, 2004
Commemorative Couple, Vezo peoples, Madagascar, 19th-20th Century, wood, male figure is 22 7/8 inches high, the female figure is 17 11/16 inches high, private collection
By Carter B. Horsley found at: http://www.thecityreview.com/echoing.html
In contrast with the stupendous and gargantuan exhibition on Byzantium at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the spring of 2004, this intimate show of "Echoing Images, Couples in African Sculpture" at the same institution demonstrates the maxim that small can often be better.
A themed rather than chronological show, it is not encyclopedic but the few objects on display are mostly of extremely high and memorable quality.
The finest "couple" in the exhibition is unquestionably a 19th-20th Century commemorative couple, Vezo peoples, from Madagascar. The male wood figure is 22 7/8 inches high and the female figure is 17 11/16 inches high and both come from a private collection. Somewhat eroded, these figures are remarkably graceful and have quite lyrical and almost Oriental poses. These world-class figures are exquisite.
Commemorative couple, Sakalava peoples, Madagascar, 19th-20th Century, wood, male figure is 70 7/8 inches high, female figure is 61 7/16 inches high, private collection
Another commemorative couple from Madagascar also is eroded, or "weathered," and is of a type that not infrequently appears at major auctions. The couple comes from the Sakalava peoples and like the Vezo peoples couple is simply dated 19th-20th Century but the figures are much larger and their poses are not as animated. The male figure is 70 7/8 inches high and the female is 61 7/16 inches high. These are elegant and stately figures of great but simple charm.
In the fine catalogue that the museum sells for only $14.95, Alisa LaGamma, associate curator in the museum's Department of the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Amerifcs, provides the following commentary about these two "couples":
"Couples are the primary subject of the large-scale monuments created for Vezo burial sites in Madagascar....These include males and females depicted intimately interwined as well as pairs of independent male and female figures. The rituals that accompanied their dedication facilitated the incorporation of the deceased into the ancestral community and assured the flow of vitality from the dead to the living. Throughout Madagascar, a northeast orientation is considered sacred in view of the association of that axis with the rising sun, propitious events, and the relationship it is believed to have with ancestors. As a result, tombs are often situated northeast of settlements. Those funerary sites that relate to Vezo communities on Madagascar's western coast are located in inaccessible forests and sandy clearings distant from villages. Sculptures are positioned at opposite corners of rectangular, box-like wood tomb structures exposed to the elements....The couple seen in plate 31 [the Vezo couple] was designed for this kind of setting and formal interaction. The figures are unique in their animation, in dramatic opposition to the static postures of most Vezo independent figural monuments. Their surfaces and forms exhibit evidence of extensive weathering and abrasion. The elements and forces of nature have played a significant role in shaping their appearance, and their attenuated limbs and blurred features contribute to their ethereal aesthetic. As a result, it is difficult to establish where the boundaries between the sculptor's hand end and the effects of erosion begin. However, their stances are deliberately dynamic, as is underscored by the attitudes of their turned heads, their raised arms, and the hands that once clasped items now missing. Their postures powerfully retain the suggestion that they are responding to each other's movements, making their connection eternally vital. These 'dancing' Vezo figures provide a powerful contrast to
the stately couple illustrated in plate 32 [the Sakalave couple]. Created by a Sakalava master to guard the entrance to a royal tomb at Tsianihy, the figures commemorate King Toera, who was killed by the French along with his supporters in 1897....While erosion has softened their features, they remain a solemn, commanding presence. The female, whose body is draped with a simple garment, gracefully balances a vessel on her head; her arms are at her sides, and her proper right hand is now empty. Her male counterpart, who once held a rifle and a lance, wears a skirt that falls just below the knees. These delicate contrasting details are subtle accents that distinguish the otherwise symmetrical depictions. Given that Sakalava commemorative sculptures are generally explicitly sexual in their nudity and depictions of passionate embraces, it is unusual that this couple is clothed and introspective in demeanor. While such works memorialize individuals, they are not conceived of as portraits but rather are reflections upon the concepts of birth and regeneration."
Couple, Chamba peoples, Nigeria, 19th-20th Century, wood with pigment, 21 inches high, Collection of Drs. Daniel and Marian Malcolm
A Chamba peoples "couple" from Nigeria is a remarkable sculptural composition in which the two figures are joined beneath their knees by a large curved element and each figure only has one leg that penetrates through that element. The wood object has traces of pigment and is 21 inches high. It is dated simply 19th-20th Century and is in the collection of Drs. Daniel and Marian Malcolm.
Ms. LaGamma provides the following commentary:
"Chamba figurative traditions from Nigeria's Benue River valley, although minimally documented, have yielded striking visual statements concerning human duality. The limited contextual information concerning their significance alludes to their placement in sacred groves as part of royal ancestral shrines....In the work illustrated in plate 28 [the Chamba peoples "couple"], a broad horizontal element spans two vertical torsos and serves as their shared lower body, which is supported by a single pair of legs. The upper bodies of the truncated figures lean slightly inward toward one another and are virtually identical except for variations in the designs of the sagittal crests that crown their heads. While, in this example both torsos would appear to be androgynous, in other, related Chamba works in this sculptural genre, male and female genders are explicitly articulated, with the female element identified by breasts and a more pronounced crest. Given this distinction, one may infer that the contrasting coiffures depicted here identify the proper left torso as female and the proper right one a male. Their abbreviated facial features emphasize open, squared mouths and ears that project outward. The synergy of the upper bodies - framed by the arms held at their sides and by the bent elbows terminating in triangular hands - creates a singular vitality. On one level this design may reflect basic Chamba assumptions concerning human existence that combine male and female aspects, but it also comments upon the interdependence of the living and the ancestral aspects of human experience."
Seated couple, Djenne Civilization, Mali, 12th-16th Century, terracotta, 11 3/8 inches high, Collection of Drs. Daniel and Marian Malcolm
Ms. LaGamma provides considerable background about the "couple" in Sudanic artistic traditions:
"It has been suggested that the emphasis on both the unity and separation of the male and female in African thought is especially intense in Sudanic sculptural traditions....In surveys that consider the vast and richly diverse artistic heritage of sub-Saharan Africa, art historians have identified regional traditions that encompass vast geographic territories. Classifications such as 'Sudanic' suggest an overarching culture and artistic legacy shared by many distinct ethnic groups....Among those sub-groups included within the area of Sudanic style are the Dogon, Bamana, Senufo, Lobi and Baga. In physical terms, the Western Sudan is a landscape of desert, grassland, and wooded savanna that extends from Senegal through Chad. Delimited to the north and south by the Sahara and the Atlantic Coast, at its heart is the great arc of the Niger Rier. As early as the first millennium B.C., the inhabitants of the Western Sudan were engaged in both farming andi ronworking tehnologies. Over time, they participated in the formation of three important pre-colonial kingdoms - Ghaha (from about the eighth to th eeleventh century), Mali (from about the thirteenth to the sixteenth century), and Sonhai (from about the fifteenth to the seventeeth century) - that prospered through trans-Saharan tradd. Commercial networks exchanged salt and brass for gold, ivory, kola nuts, and slaves, and, by the tenth century, facilitated the spread of Islam from North Africa across the Sahara to the Akan forest region in present day Ghana. Among the earliest forms of artistic expression in the Western Sudan are depictions of couples in terracotta and cast copper alloy, from Mali's Inland Niger Delta. These works ahve been related to the ancient urban fcnter of Djenne-Jeno three kilometers soutwest of the contemporary city of Djenne. Archaeologists have determined that the site was settled about 250 B.C., and that it was continuously ocupied by an ethnically diverse population for
over a millennium before its abandonment about A.D. 500....Djenne-Jeno's fine local pottery was being traded upriver and there is evidence that early sculpture was manufactured. Copper and salt brought by Saharan traders were exchanged for the region's abundant fish and agricultural resources....Islam's penetration of the region around A.D. 1000 coincides with the producton of figurative terracottas at Djenne-Jeno, which some have proposed may have been a direct response to an assault on indigenous belief systems.....It has been suggested that Djenne-Jeno's decline may be related to the arrival of Islam, and that a new urban settlement purged of traditional religious practices was established at Djenne once the community's leadership converted to the new faith....The corpus of figurative terracottas associated with Djenne-Jeno's civilization is immensely diversified iconographically. In addition to a group of armed foot soldiers and horsemen, there are representations of individual men and women attired simply in girdles, anklets, and bracelets, in attitudes suggestive of prayer or supplication. Some of the subjets addressed are figurative pairs that suggest relationships of intimate companionship. To date, approximately thirty-six terracotta sculptures as well as fragmentary remains of artifacts and reliefs have been found as part of controlled excavations in the vicinity of Djenne-Jeno..., among them a pair of male and female figures discovered positioned next to the foundation of a house at a site northwest of Djenne....Excavated from under what appears to have been the floor the figures, both missing their heads, are shown kneeling with their hands placed on their knees, their bodies covered with raised dots of clay. This dramatic surface treatment is apparent on other related ancient terracottas from the region...While it is difficult to arrive at any conclusions based on such a limited contextual record, it is intriguing consider that in more than one instance
representations of couples were interred near the entrances to domestic compounds. Within the large corpus of known Djenne terracottas, figural pairings are a recurrent theme....In addition to representations of male and female figural pairs, ancient Djenne's artists also depicted pairs of figures of the same gender, as in the pair of male figures that kneel side by side, with interlaced arms, seen in plate 2 [Djenne couple]."
Couple, pendant, Djenne Civilization, Mali, 15th Century, brass, 2 9/16 inches high, Collection of Jeffrey B. Soref
"This is evident in works in brass, such as the minature in plate 3 [the Djenne brass couple], which is closely related stylistically to the terracottas: the two virtually identical bearded male figures wear their hair in a distinctive topknot. They are seated side by side, their hands resting on bent knees. A wavy serpentine vertical motif is emblazoned along the length of each of the torsos, terminating in a prominent navel....The intimate scale of this work suggest that it served as a personal pendant and may have had amuletic properties."
Primordial couple, Dogon peoples, Mali, 16th-19th Century, wood and metal, 28 3/4 inches high, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Lester
In his introduction to the catalogue for the exhibition, Philippe de Montebello, the director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, noted that "Masaccio's Expulsion from the Garden of Eden in the Brancacci Chapel in Florence ranks among the most searching portrayals of the archetypal couple in Western art. In that searing and timeless visual commentary, Adam and Eve are depicted at the moment when they are forced to become self sufficient, newly united in their shared suffering and responsibilities. The iconic African work that introduces this exhibition is also remarkable for its universally comprehensible commentary: The concise visual vocabulary of the Dogon Primordial Couple, one of the most beloved works in The Metropolitan Museum of Art's permanent collection, provides an excellent statement concerning the unity of man and woman as an elemental social unit. Together with the exceptional works included here, which address comparable subject matter from a range of different cultural perspectives, it attests to the rich diversity of artistic traditions that have flourished in Africa."
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Tribal Arts of Africa
Author: Jean-Baptiste Bacquart
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