A fine Eastern Pende Panya-Gombe African mask. Coll.: David Norden
Umfa Museum of fine Arts - Utah
Ivory Coast, Baulé people
|read also: UMFA-Arts of a Continent The Utah Museum of Fine Arts offers a stuning primitive-art exhibition free public Juneteenth celebration and African art finds a home in Utah||
and Owen Mort or African Art
collection listing at UMFA
The Baulé people live in central Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire). A subgroup of the Akan people, they originally lived in Ghana. Three hundred years ago they migrated west into the Ivory Coast area when their queen, Aura Poku, contended for power with the king of the Asante people (also a subgroup of the Akan group). After the Asante king won, she led her people into the land they now occupy. The Baulé are an agrarian people who grow yam, manioc and maize. Their society is matrilineal, meaning descent is traced through one’s mother. Their social structure consists of small groups under the leadership of a king or queen.
he Chokwe live in the southwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). The Chokwe grow manioc, cassava, yams, peanuts and maize (to make beer). The Chokwe acknowledge allegiance to chiefs who inherit their position from maternal uncles.
The Dan live in Liberia and the Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire). While they lacked a cohesive central government, identity as a Dan was fostered by a shared language and intermarriage within the language group. Today men make their living at wage work in the diamond camps or working at the rubber plantations instead of the more traditional farming and hunting. What has remained is the demonstration of success through the competition by young men to see who can spend more lavishly at community feasts. The Dan place a high value on the individual’s ability to succeed and consider such demonstrations of wealth as proof of achievements.
The Igbo live in southeast Nigeria. The Igbo still farm with the staple crop being yams. A cash crop is provided through the harvesting of the fruit of the palm tree and the processing of it into palm oil that they export. Leadership is vested in a village council that includes the heads of families, elders and men viewed as important contributors to the society.
The Kuba live in the southeastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo and are part of a large complex of tribes encompassing 18 ethnic groups all dominated by the BuShongo, the ruling group. They grow manioc, corn, millet, beans and groundnuts and hunt extensively. The Kuba are matrilineal so descent is traced through one’s mother, but they are patrilocal so that children reside with their father. Their political system consists of a king who presides over a council made up of representatives of various kin groups and trade guilds. Under them are various administrative officials. Under colonialism, the kingdom was largely broken up by the late 19th century.
The Pende people live in the southwest part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). Originally from the area of modern-day Angola they were forced north in 1620 by the expansion of the Lunda people. In 1885 the expansion of the Chokwe people overwhelmed most of the eastern Pende and extended into the western groups. The rise of colonialism halted this incursion and the Pende regained their cultural unity.
The Pende are divided into the eastern, central and Kwilu Pende. Although each group is culturally distinct they consider themselves as one people.
The Pende are an agrarian people who grow millet, maize, plantain, and peanuts. While it is women who do most of the farm work, the men help to clear the fields and supplement the diet by hunting and fishing.
The Salampasu people live in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). They are grouped in a loose confederation of villages headed by chiefs. The Salampasu have a highly stratified society with initiation ceremonies playing vital roles in maintaining the social system. The Salampasu live mostly from hunting, but the women do some farming.
Songye and Luba Art
The Songye and Luba peoples live in the southeastern area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both groups trace their origins to a common mythic ancestor, Kongolo, and they are related linguistically. As with many African groups, the Songye and Luba rely on farming, supplementing their diet with hunting. Since rivers were the sacred homes of spirits and their chiefs were buried in them
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Tribal Arts of Africa
Author: Jean-Baptiste Bacquart
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mail David Norden phone +32 3 227.35.40