LEVENSBESCHOUWING(EN)
WEDERKERIGHEID (DIVERSITEIT - VICE VERSA)
websitenaam : http://users.telenet.be/arseen.de.kesel/ . http://levensbeschouwing.info/ . http://www.levensbeschouwing.info/ .
http://www.bijbelleerhuis.be (zie bijbel)
Nieuwe website : http://www.interlevensbeschouwelijk.be/index.htm
- STARTPAGINA - AGENDA - BIJ DE HAND - NIEUW - OVERZICHT -  TIJDSCHRIFTEN -
ALFABETISCH OVERZICHT VAN THEMA'S EN WEBSITES :
JAARTAL - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X -Y - Z
HOOFDTHEMA'S : allochtonen , armoede , bahá'íbijbel , bijbel en koran , boeddhisme , christendom , extreemrechts ( Vlaams Blok ) , fundamentalisme , globalisering en antiglobalisering ,  hindoeïsme , interlevensbeschouwelijke dialoog , interreligieuze meditatie , islam , jodendom , levensbeschouwing , levensbeschouwing / godsdienst en onderwijs , migratie , mystiek , racisme , samenleving , sikhisme , tewerkstelling van allochtonen , vluchtelingen en asielzoekers , vrijzinnigheid , witte scholen , multiculturele scholen en concentratiescholen ,
- Eigen-zinnige beschouwingen - Het kleine of grote ongenoegen -

7. Het recht op vrijheid van godsdienst: citaten en links . E-MAIL NETWERK MENSENRECHTENEDUCATIE jaargang 2, nummer 9 (19 november 2002)

Vrijheid van godsdienst: algemeen

“Zonder vrijheid van godsdienst kan er geen werkelijke politieke vrijheid zijn, noch vrijheid van denken en van geweten” (Noorse ex-premier Bondevik)
uit:
'Godsdienstvrijheid is pilaar van beschaving’: artikel over opvattingen van Noorse ex-premier Bondevik over godsdienstvrijheid, betekenis en belang ervan.

“Hoewel verkettering en vervolging van alle tijden en van alle eeuwen zijn, wordt de invloed ervan op de internationale stabiliteit in de laatste jaren steeds meer onderkend.” (J.J. Aartsen)
uit: ‘Recht op godsdienstvrijheid te weinig aanvaard’: artikel van de Nederlandse minister van buitenlandse zaken J.J. Aartsen (2000) over het belang van godsdienstvrijheid en religieuze tolerantie in het buitenlandse beleid van Nederland en in het internationale beleid.

Godsdienstvrijheid en onderwijs

"De katholieke school van de toekomst is een school met een modern-christelijke levensbeschouwing. Het schoolbestuur moet zorgen dat die levensbeschouwing zich in het schoolgebeuren vertaalt. Daartoe volstaat niet dat het aanzet tot kameraadschap, antiracisme, zorg voor het milieu, enz., want ook het Gemeenschapsonderwijs doet dat. Eigen christelijk is pas de motivering van de inzet voor deze en andere humane waarden. Die motivering ontspringt aan het geloof in Jezus Christus en in diens God, en zal ook eigen inhoudelijke accenten meebrengen, zowel in het vakonderricht als in het hele schoolleven." (Roger Lenaers)
uit: ‘De relatie tussen katholieke identiteit en pluralisme’: tekst van de lezing op het IPB-forum van 9 maart 2002. Lezing over de rol die de katholieke school kan spelen in de moderniteit, in het pluralisme van levensbeschouwingen

"De veelheid aan levensbeschouwingen, de versplintering van het hart en van de gemeenschappen als gevolg van de rationele benadering van de werkelijkheid en de hang naar vrijheid, begrijpen wij als een uitdaging aan de godsdienst." (uit de visietekst leerplan godsdienst van het katholiek onderwijs)
uit: visietekst bij leeplan godsdienst van het katholiek onderwijs.

"Als het katholiek onderwijs zich zo strak opstelt omwille van haar eigen identiteit (en het nettensysteem aldus versterkt), dan stuurt zij de moslimouders in de richting van het oprichten van eigen islamitische scholen. Vele moslimouders en ook vele katholieken wensen dergelijke evolutie niet." (Herman De Ley)
uit: dossier Islamonderricht en moslims in het katholiek onderwijs naar aanleiding van het stopzetten van islamonderricht in 3 katholieke basisscholen in Heusden-Zolder in 2000. 14 links naar andere artikels m.b.t. dit onderwerp.

“Vlaamse kinderen die hun communiefeest voorbereiden of het feest van de vrijzinnige jeugd vieren, blijven op die dagen ook thuis. Net zoals Islamitische kinderen een dag school overslaan voor het suikerfeest. Het is niet realistisch om daar tegen op te treden, vind ik." (Directeur van de basisschool Omni Mundi naar aanleiding van omzendbrief van minister Vanderpoorten)
uit: ‘Onderwijsminister wil Islamitische en Joodse feesten uit spijbelstatistieken’: reacties vanuit verschillende onderwijsnetten op omzendbrief van onderwijsminister Vanderpoorten over nieuwe wettelijke (niet-katholieke) feestdagen.

“Levensbeschouwelijke identiteit wordt vaak gedacht als iets dat aan het pedagogisch project van een school vooraf gaat. De school laat zich door een bepaalde levensbeschouwing inspireren en gaat van daaruit haar pedagogische opdracht invullen.” (uit de inleiding van een symposium over levensbeschouwelijke identiteit en onderwijs)
uit: Symposium: ‘Levensbeschouwelijke identiteit en onderwijs’. Enkele lezingen over de rol van levensbeschouwing in het opvoedingsproject van een school.

“In die ruime opvatting van godsdienstonderricht is niet de mening van de andersgelovigen gevraagd. Men gaat ervan uit dat het een goede zaak is en dat wie in een katholieke school onderwijs wil volgen, zich hierbij moet neerleggen.”
(uit een artikel over andersgelovigen in het katholiek onderwijs, auteur niet vermeld)
uit: ‘Andersgelovigen en het katholiek onderwijs’ (Islam in het katholiek onderwijs en in de godsdienstlessen): verschillende artikels met verschillende standpunten.

“Wij zijn een openbare school. Godsdienst is iets wat je in je eigen tijd beleeft. Als zij willen bidden, dan doen ze dat maar thuis." (schooldirecteur van Calandlyceum in Amsterdam, antwoord op de vraag van Islamitische leerlingen naar een gebedsruimte tijdens de middagpauze)
uit: verschillende artikels over het al dan niet toelaten van Islamitische gebedsmomenten in scholen (Nederland), verschillende opvattingen.

Andere onderwerpen m.b.t. godsdienstvrijheid

“Waar fundamentele ethische waarden in het geding zijn, moet de godsdienst voor de ethiek wijken.” (Ethicus Koen Raes in artikel over godsdienstvrijheid en rituele slachtingen)
uit: ‘Godsdienstvrijheid en dierenleed - slachten door middel van de halssnede tussen levensbeschouwelijke tolerantie en ethische verantwoording’ (Koen Raes, RUG, CIE)
Artikel over beperkingen van godsdienstvrijheid in het algemeen en een ethische beschouwing over beperkingen van het recht op godsdienstvrijheid m.b.t. dierenwelzijn.

“De reacties op de hoofddoekjesaffaire in verschillende westerse landen maakten nogmaals en ten overvloede duidelijk dat de religieuze symbolen van (vooral moslim)migranten tot conflictsituaties leidt.” (Michèle Goethals, in artikel ‘De islamitische hoofddoek: te nemen of te laten?’
uit: Dossier met enkele artikels over de discussie over het dragen van een hoofddoek door Islamitische meisjes (in scholen, op pasfoto,...)
artikel: ‘De islamitische hoofddoek: te nemen of te laten?’: betekenis van de hoofddoek in de Islam, overzicht van de situatie/wetgeving over hoofddoeken in verschillende landen (ook België), case study hoofddoekaffaire Gentse onderwijs,...

“De nationale en internationale wetgevingen (over godsdienstvrijheid) ten spijt, stellen we nog steeds een bevooroordeelde visie op islam en een continuë discriminatie van moslims vast.” (Sami Zemni, RUG, CIE)
uit: 'Is er een plaats voor Islam in Europa?’ (Sami Zemni, RUG, CIE) Pleidooi voor de aanvaarding van de Islam in Europa als een gelijkwaardige religie naast het christendom en andere religies in een context van multiculturalisme en pluralisme.

Engelstalig

International Coalition for Religious Freedom: met o.a. landenrapporten en nieuwsartikels m.b.t godsdienstvrijheid.

The Religious Freedome Page: over godsdienstvrijheid in de wereld en specifiek in de V.S. Hier kan je ook de religieuze situatie per land bekijken; bv. voor België.

The Center for Religious Freedom vecht tegen religieuze vervolgingen overal in de wereld. De site biedt verschillende artikels (nieuwsitems) over religieuze vervolgingen en een overzicht van publicaties.

Ontario Consultants on religious Tolerance is een organisatie die vrijheid van het individu nastreeft in de keuze van een godsdienst. De site biedt uitgebreide (neutrale) informatie over verschillende godsdiensten en geloofsovertuigingen.

VN, office of the high commissioner for human rights
“All in all, school education, especially primary (or elementary) and secundary education makes it possible to tackle the root causes that may lead to racial discrimination and religious intolerance or to tolerance and non-discrimination.” (Prof. Abdelfattah Amor, rapporteur van mensenrechtencommissie voor religieuze tolerantie)
uit: 2 documenten naar aanleiding van een internationale conferentie (Madrid 2001) over religieuze tolerantie en non-discriminatie in relatie tot onderwijs en educatie:


http://www.identiteit.net: IdentiteitNet is een netwerk van identiteitsbegeleiders en een platform voor ieder die zich betrokken voelt bij vormgeving van de identiteit en het vakgebied levensbeschouwelijke vorming in het primair onderwijs (Nederland).

http://www.perron7.nl/: PERRON 7 geopend op 14 maart 2002 (door Nick Zwart)
de jongerenwebsite van de Theologische Faculteit Tilburg met levensbeschouwelijke vragen
'Levensbeschouwing in cyberspace' (Trouw vrijdag 15 maart 2002) Het virtuele treinstation van Tilburg, geroezemoes. Op de perrons staan diverse 'bestemmingen' aangegeven: Wie is de mens? Op zoek naar de ander. De natuur in mensenhanden. Over-leven na de dood. Zin en onzin. Sinds gisteren kan de haastige jongere op de interactieve site van de Katholieke Universiteit Brabant terecht met levensbeschouwelijke vragen. (Zie verder pagina 2 van Trouw)
Het is eindelijk zover. Na ruim een jaar werk is de jongerenwebsite van de Theologische Faculteit Tilburg gestart. Het is voor mij een geweldige uitdaging geweest om als projectmanager zowel inhoudelijk als ook technisch aan de slag gaan. Uiteraard niet alleen, maar met een klein team deskundigen: Bert Roebben, Ilse Geerinck en Annemeike Tan van de TFT, Marieke Smit vanuit het voortgezet onderwijs en Wouter Colpaert en Hanneke van Loon die als studenten van de faculteit hun medewerking hebben verleend. De laatste twee zijn op pagina twee van Trouw terug te vinden, waar ze hun ervaringen over theologie en hun visie over de site toelichten. Het is nog maar een start. Of jongeren er ook echt door zullen worden gestimuleerd zal in de komende maanden moeten blijken. De eerste stap is gezet.



   België: Moet de islam gefinancierd worden door de staat? Deze tekst was te vinden op: http://www.hrwf.net/Nederlands/dossier2.html .
Een uittreksel: Het historisch proces van staatserkenning van religies

Toen België in 1830 onafhankelijk werd, bleven de wetten, de decreten en reglementen van vóór de Belgische grondwet in werking, in zoverre dat deze beschikkingen niet vervangen of afgeschaft werden. Daardoor genoot het   katholicisme (sinds 1802 onder Frans bewind), het protestantisme ( sinds 1802) en het jodendom (sinds 17 maart 1808) van de status van staatserkenning en de financiële voordelen die hieruit voortvloeiden.

Na de uitvaardiging van de grondwet  werden andere erediensten erkend door een wet of door een Koninklijk Besluit. Het anglicanisme werd erkend door twee Koninklijke Besluiten ( 18 en 24 april 1835). Op 4 maart 1870 werden het katholicisme, het protestantisme, het jodendom en het anglicanisme weer expliciet erkend door een wet op het tijdelijke der erediensten van de religie. Meer dan een eeuw later, werden zij gevolgd door de islam ( wet van 19 juli 1974 die de genoemde wet  uit 1870 wijzigde) en ten slotte orthodoxie ( wet van 17 april 1985 die dezelfde wet uit 1870 wijzigde).

Bovendien heeft de laïciteit indirect staatserkenning genoten sinds de laatste herziening van de grondwet. Artikel 181 § 2 van de nieuwe grondwet stelt vast dat de lonen en pensioenen van de adviseurs van de laïciteit die morele hulp verschaffen door de staat betaald moeten worden. De inclusie van artikel 181 § 2 was wettelijk niet noodzakelijk, omdat het staatsbudget al een jaarlijkse subsidie toebedeelde aan de organisatie die officieel de laïciteit vertegenwoordigde en omdat de salarissen en de pensioenen van de adviseurs van de laïciteit in het leger werden toebedeeld in de wet van 18 februari 1991. Het kan echter niet ontkend worden dat de inclusie van artikel 181 een zekere constitutionele erkenning van de laïciteit toestaat, wat zelfs buiten België niet alleen een psychologisch impact heeft. Het is inderdaad opvallend dat de staatshoofden van de Europese Unie ook hebben besloten om de nadruk te leggen op het belang van niet-religieus denken in de ‘Final Act’ van het Verdrag van Amsterdam van juni 1997.

 Zoals kan worden opgemaakt uit dit historisch overzicht, zijn maar heel weinig groeperingen erkend sinds 1870, ook al heeft een aantal religieuze minderheden deze status aangevraagd. Behalve sociaal nut voor de samenleving is er geen officieel criterium om staatserkenning te rechtvaardigen. In 1985 probeerde Jean Gol, toenmalige minister van Justitie (en lid van de Liberale Partij PRL en van de Joodse Gemeenschap) enige criteria vast te stellen voor de erkenning van een religie : haar lidmaatschap (tienduizenden, ook al werd het jodendom in 1830 met maar 1000 leden erkend), haar geschiedenis en haar belangen in de samenleving. Hij vond dat de wereldwijde dimensie van een religie niet voldoende was als criterium. Zijn beschouwingen zijn echter nooit omgezet in een wet en het voornaamste probleem van het definiëren van een eredienst bestaat nog steeds.

Het Belgische erkenningsysteem is altijd de facto gebaseerd geweest op een monolithische structuur en het functioneren van de dominante kerk, het Rooms Katholicisme : een kerkelijke structuur met een duidelijke hiërarchie en een duidelijke territoriale verdeling. Het is echter uitzonderlijk voor een geloof om monolithisch te zijn. Er is een grote verscheidenheid van Protestantse benamingen, van Orthodoxe Kerken, van onderverdelingen in de islam (Shiieten, Soennieten, Wahhabieten), in het Boeddhisme, Hindoeïsme en andere groeperingen. Sommige religies kennen geen hiërarchie of geestelijkheid. In een steeds groter wordende multireligieuze samenleving is deze verscheidenheid een uitdaging voor het Belgische systeem, dat nu verouderd en nogal ongeschikt lijkt.

Orthodoxie is alleen erkend via de Griekse en Russische orthodoxe Kerken. De Verenigde Protestantse Kerk van België (VPKB), die de wettelijke erfgenaam is van het protestantisme dat in de 19e eeuw door de staat erkend is, representeert tegenwoordig minder dan de helft van de protestantse bevolking. Ongeveer 50% van de Belgische protestanten treden toe tot niet-erkende adventisten-,  evangelische en pinksterkerken, die verenigd zijn in een overkoepelende organisatie, ‘Federale Synode van Protestantse en Evangelische Kerken in België’ genaamd. De islam is een erkende religie, maar tot 1999 slaagde hij er niet in aan een fundamentele voorwaarde te voldoen : een administratieve, overkoepelende organisatie hebben, die de verschillende componenten van de islam in België reflecteert. Op 13 december 1999 zijn er dan ook verkiezingen gehouden die geleid hebben tot de oprichting van een dergelijke vertegenwoordiging.

De laïciteit is ook niet monolithisch. Alleen een kleine groep van de laïcisten, vrijdenkers, atheïsten, agnostieken….. identificeren zichzelf met de Conseil Central Laïque, die door de staat wordt beschouwd als het administratief orgaan dat de laïciteit vertegenwoordigt.

Erkenning brengt verscheidene materiële voordelen met zich mee die staan beschreven onder de kop ‘Staatsfinanciering voor erkende religies’. Nu volgt een lijst van dergelijke privileges. Geestelijken krijgen (bescheiden) lonen van de staat en geschikte huisvesting van de gemeenten of provincies. Rechterlijke persoonlijkheid is toegeschreven aan de kerkfabrieken. Vrije radio- en televisie-uitzendingtijd is tot hun beschikking gesteld. Ze kunnen leger- en gevangenisaalmoezeniers aanwijzen, wier salarissen betaald worden door de staat. Ze hebben het recht om godsdienstlessen op openbare scholen te geven.

Dit overzicht legt duidelijk de nadruk op twee categorieën minderheidsreligies. Een aantal minderheidsreligies is erkend door de staat en genieten, enigermate en met de uitzondering van de islam, van de financiële en materiële voordelen die hierboven staan beschreven. Het gaat hier om het jodendom (40 000 aanhangers), de Verenigde Protestantse Kerk van België (40 000), de orthodoxie (40 000) en het anglicanisme (6 000). Niet-erkende minderheidsreligies komen niet in aanmerking voor de genoemde voordelen die verbonden zijn aan de status van staatserkenning. Hieronder vallen het protestantisme, vertegenwoordigd door de ‘Federale Synode van Protestantse en Evangelische Kerken in België’ (ongeveer 50 000) en door onafhankelijke gemeenten (ongeveer 10 000), getuigen van Jehova (ongeveer 25 000 aanhangers en 50 000 kerkgangers) ; de Scientology Kerk (ongeveer 5 000) ; Mormonen (ongeveer 3 000-4 000) ; en Boeddhisten (ongeveer 3 000). Verder zijn er andere niet-erkende groepen, zoals bijvoorbeeld de Bahai’s, Hare Krishna, Sahaja Yoga, Sukyô Mahikari en de Raëliaanse Beweging. Groepen met minder dan 150 aanhangers zijn : De Familie, Soka Gakkai, Unification Church, Nieuw Akropolis, Fraternité Blanche Universelle, Spiritual Human Yoga, Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus, Church of Christ of Brussels, Ogyen Kunzang Chôling, Het Werk, Institut Gnostique d’Anthropologie, Antoinisme.



Bij voorbeeld wordt vergeten dat de financiering van de Katholieke Kerk via de bezoldiging van de priesters haar oorsprong vindt in de verbintenis aangegaan met het Concordaat van 1801, dat de vergoeding regelt van de schade geleden door de nationalisering van de onmetelijke eigendommen die de Kerk had verzameld,


 Weddes en woonstvergoeding voor de imams, onderhoud van de moskeeën

Een artikel in Knack: "De Kerk is een staatszaak" van 7.3.2001 leert ons dat in België een aantal religies wettelijk erkend zijn en dat hun bedienaars een wedde en pensioen
uitbetaald krijgen (art. 181 van de Grondwet):

Erkende religies (tussen haakjes wordt het aantal geschatte aanhangers/gelovigen vermeld):

     de rooms-katholieke (geen aantal vermeld of moeten we aannemen dat het er 10 miljoen zijn min de andere religies en de vrijzinnigen samen ?)
     de islamitische (300.000)
     de protestantse (100.000)
     de orthodoxe (50.000)
     de joodse (40.000)
     de anglikaanse (21.000)

Daarnaast werden vanaf 1993 morele diensten met een niet-confessionele levensbeschouwing betoelaagd (*) , (geen schatting van het aantal aanhangers vermeld).

Zowel de federale staat, de provincies en de gemeenten betoelagen de bedienaars van de erkende religies. Justitie betaalt de loonkosten (3,27 miljard BEF voor 2001), de provincie
moet de bisschop onderdak bieden, en de gemeente moet instaan voor de huisvesting van de pastoors, de onderhouds- en herstellingswerken aan kerken, en de tekorten van de
kerkfabrieken. Alle overheden tekenen samen voor 21 miljard, zo berekende een recente studie van het Centre de recherche et d' information socio-politiques van de Université
Catholique de Louvain (Crisp).



Gebouwen voor eredienst: Vlaams Gewest 60 %, Provincie 20 %, Gemeente 10 %


DELBEKE, Geert, Hoeveel kost de kerk? Nieuw cijfermateriaal over financiering van levensbeschouwingen, in: Tertio, 18 april 2001, p.8-9
DELBEKE Geert, Het geld van de kerk, Leuven, Davidsfonds, 2002; 320 blz., 19.95 euro.
De binnenbladzijden (blz.14-15) van Kerk en Leven  (parochieblad) van woensdag 2 oktober 2002 besteedt aandacht aan 'het geld van de kerk'. 


Bahai

De officiële Belgische Bahá'í site: http://www.bahai.be/nederlands/index.shtml
De officiële bahá'í site van Nederland:  http://www.bahai.nl/
Bahá'í gemeenschap Hasselt - België: http://users.pandora.be/bahaihasselt/  

L'histoire de Sukyo Mahikari en Belgique http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Flats/1374/smbel.htm

Ce résumé est tiré du précieux livre du journaliste Alain Lallemand, "Les Sectes en Belgique et au Luxembourg", 1996.

Le fondateur, Yoshikazu Okada, visita l'Europe en 1973, époque à laquelle il décida de lancer le mouvement en dehors du Japon, un peu dans
la foulée d'autres sectes, telles Krishna ou Moon. Le 14 novembre 1974, se crée rue St Lazare à Saint Josse "l'Organisation pour réaliser une
civilisation nouvelle par la lumière de la vérité" ou "Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan" asbl. Les fondateurs sont issus de milieux privilégiés
(négociant, administrateur de société, officier à la retraite) et se rassemblent autour d'un certain Masakatsu Kubo, Japonais ravaillant dans la
secte et résidant à Paris. On donne les pleins pouvoirs à un comptable bruxellois, Emile Vandenhende, dont le rôle sera considérable.
L'adresse officielle sera alors celle du "Tchu Dojo" de Bruxelles, 48, quai du Commerce. En juillet 1980, E. Vandenhende fonde à Luxembourg,
avec un couple luxembourgeois, l'asbl "Mahikari-Luxembourg, association pour réaliser une civilisation nouvelle par la lumière de vérité."

Dans les années quatre-vingt, se crée en Belgique la structure juridique réunissant tous les adeptes d'Europe et d'Afrique, véritable QG de la
secte en dehors du Japon : "l'Organistion européenne et africaine pour la purification spirituelle par la lumière de Dieu", qui est une association
internationale à but religieux (AIBR) régie par la loi de 1919. Ses statuts sont publiés le 1er avril 1982. Basée à Tervuren, Edelweisslaan, elle
regroupe le gratin du mouvement, à savoir son président international (Yukio  Konabe, représentant direct de Keishu Okada), un "missionnaire"
japonais de Bruxelles, un "missionnaire japonais de Boulogne-Billancourt et le président belge, E. Vandenhende, qui devient
secrétaire-trésorier de l'association internationale. La Belgique, par l'entremise de son président, reçoit en 1983 la haute main sur une série
d'appellations comme Mahikari, Shidobu Europe-Afrique, Dojo Europe-Afrique, etc. Elle reçoit également tous les droits sur "Sekai Mahikari
Bunmei Kyodan" : l'association belge du même nom, devenue obsolète, cesse alors de se manifester, structures nationale, belge et
internationale vont se fondre et tout ce petit monde se rassemble désormais quai du Commerce. C'est en Belgique que se décidera la création
de toutes les antennes des deux continents concernés : le 10 février 1984, par exemple, ils votent la création d'un "dojo" à Badalona, en
Espagne, et désignent le conseil d'administration de l'association espagnole, dans lequel ils ont infiltré Konabe, résidant à Auderghem.

Le milieu des années quatre-vingt verra l'implantation du mouvement se modifier fortement sous l'influence d'un noble luxembourgeois,
encombré d'un château : Gaston, comte de Marchant et d'Ansembroug, né à Etterbeek en 1938, qui tente de vendre son bien depuis les années
soixante.
En réalité, il existe deux châteaux d'Ansembourg, tous deux situés sur la commune de Tuntange, le plus ancien restant la propriété de la famille.
Le nouveau ou "grand château", par contre, intéresse Mahikari. Cette bâtisse datant du début du 17e siècle, autrefois "maison de forges",
s'étend sur 51 ares et est pourvue de riches jardins sur 2,39 hectares. Rien que çà!
Il fut occupé un temps par la "Miami University". Au fil des années, son état se dégrada : jardin à refaire, murs de soutènement à restaurer,
reconstruction partielle, etc.

En juillet 1985, Emile Vandenhende démissionne de l'asbl "Mahikari Luxembourg" et cède la place notamment à Konabe, qui quitte Auderghem
pour Paris et le comte Gaston d'Ansembourg. E. Vandenhende quittera alors l'organisation internationale en 1988. Konabe, quant à lui,
s'effacera au profit de Mokushiro Obuchi, un Japonais administrateur de sociétés, qui deviendra rapidement l'homme fort du mouvement
international. Obuchi est basé en Martinique et devient président de l'association luxembourgeoise en octobre 1985. Celle-ci, située rue Paul
Noesen, n'est qu'une association nationale, comptant toutefois des Belges et quelques Français.
En octobre 1986, Mokushiro Obuchi, son épouse Takako, le comte Gaston d'Ansembourg, un administrateur de sociétés japonais et un certain
Akihiko Koriyama, "administrateur de sociétés, demeurant au 48, quai du Commerce" (c'est fou ce qu'il peut y avoir comme administrateurs de
sociétés dans une association dite "spirituelle" et "à but non lucratif", de "missionnaires", on est passé à "administrateurs de société") décident
de créer au château, appartenant toujours au comte, la société anonyme "Yoko Shuppan - Europe". Dotée d'un capital de départ d'un million et
demi de francs luxembourgeois, la société aura pour objet la "diffusion de publications, vente d'objets de culte, éducation, ou tout autre activité
pouvant servir à l'expansion de Mahikari dans le monde (...)". La quasi-totalité du capital (1.460 actions sur 1.500) se concentre dans les mains
de Mokushiro Obuchi, président du conseil d'administration. Administrateur-délégué : le comte d'Ansembourg!

Le 19 janvier 1987,  Me Elter à Luxembourg acte la vente du château (acte 37/1987) à l'association Mahikari. En fait, il s'agit de l'association
japonaise "Sukyo Mahikari Gifu-Ken", représentée par Mokushiro Obuchi, "directeur régional d'Europe et d'Afrique de Sukyo Mahikari". Or,
administrativement et légalement, il n'est que président d'une société commerciale, Okabe étant toujours en place au niveau international. On
peut y voir le signe d'une certaine confusion au niveau de la structure de la secte, comme dans d'autres sectes où la complexité des instances
sert de paravent.
Le château est donc acheté pour 160 millions de yens, soit 39.944.000 francs luxembourgeois. Il n'a donc pas été "donné" pour le franc
symbolique par le comte, comme l'affirme un mythe dans la secte. L'acte de vente s'avère quelque peu inhabituel, puisqu'il contient une
procuration en japonais faite par Sukyo Mahikari à Mokushiro Obuchi. La personne qui donne la procuration n'est autre que Keishu (Koko)
Okada. Tout reste donc bien concentré entre ses mains.
Une fois l'opération réalisée, Mokushiro Obuchi quitte son poste en mai 1987. Son successeur à la tête de "Yoko Shuppan" et de "Mahikari
Luxembourg" est Tadashi Shirasaki.
C'est à Ansembourg que sera inauguré le 8 mai 1993 l'autel de Mahikari pour l'Europe et l'Afrique.

La restauration du château est mise en branle. La "Compagnie de Construction" de Luxembourg aménage les canalisations souterraines et les
murs de soutènement sont refaits. Le budget engagé en 1993 est de l'ordre de 150 millions. L'activité immobilière soutenue par les Japonais
est donc florissante, au contraire de l'activité d'édition ("Yoko Shuppan" enregistre deux millions de pertes pour l'exercice 1991.

Sukyo Mahikari comporte aujourd'hui un pôle néerlandophone important (Houthalen, Bree, Kempen, Zwevegem, etc.), assez indépendant du
Luxembourg. En Belgique francophone, il existe un centre financé par les Japonais et érigé avec l'énergie détournée de nombreux membres à
Verviers, 4 Drève de Maison-Bois (Heusy). Enfin, le centre de Bruxelles a déménagé du quai du Commerce pour aller s'installer sur la chaussée
de Ninove (Pedestraat).

Extracts of the Report made by the Belgian Parliamentary Commission about sects: http://caic.org.au/eastern/mahikari/belgiump.htm.

Here are some extracts about Sukyo Mahikari from the first and second parts of the Report made by the Belgian Parliamentary Commission on
Sects. You can find the complete report (about 700 pages) in the pdf format (Acrobat Reader) on the site of the Room of Representatives (in
French, Dutch and German, the three Belgian national languages). For the hearing of the two Sukyo Mahikari's representatives I added my own
personal comments which appear between brackets and in italics.

This translation is no official translation and is for your information only. The only goal is to propose to the non-French-speaking Internet
community an access to the extracts of the report concerning Sukyo Mahikari.

                                                            Part I

                                                    Parliamentary inquiry

 aiming at achieving a policy to fight against the illegal practices of sects and the danger they represent for society and individuals,
                                                      especially minors.

                                                           -----------

                    Report made under the name of the inquiry commission by Mr. Duquesne and Mr. Willems

                                                           -----------

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Your commission have dedicated 58 meetings to the achievement of the present inquiry which started on April 25 1996 and has heard 136
witnesses.

(...)

II. MISSION OF THE INQUIRY COMMISSION

The first article of the text adopted by the Room of Representatives is labelled as follows :

An inquiry commission is set up and is intended to :

     study the phenomenon of sects in Belgium on the base of the hearing of competent authorities, experts, associations of defence of victims
     and their family or any person useful to this analysis;
     study especially the recruiting modes, as well as the practices within the sects in Belgium in order to determine possible abuses, precise
     their organisation, the means they have and their practices violating among others social and fiscal laws;
     establish a report on the existing legal means, including jurisprudence, allowing to punish the illegalities committed by sectarian
     movements;
     propose, if needed, amendments of our federal law order to repress the illegal acts of sects whose victims are both majors and minors;
     make all useful recommendations on the federal and international level in order to take the measures intended to draw the attention of
     people involved on the extent of the phenomenon, its forms and dangers and the means to fight it and on the interest to offer to the victims
     and their family.

(...)

B. Organisation of works

When it started its work on May 3 1996, the inquiry commission decided to hear first of all the witness under oath of the representatives of a
number of official authorities which may enlighten the different aspects of the sectarian problems and the interventions in this field : members of
the government, representatives of the Judiciary power, people in charge or members of police and intelligence services, members of the R
Committee and administrative people (federal and community authorities). The commission also wished to hear the witness of some university
professors, scientific people and authors having theoretical or practical knowledge of this field.

In a second step, the commission heard representatives of defence associations of victims of sectarian movements, as well as ex-cult members
and family members of members and ex-cult members.

Finally, the commission also wanted to hear (at their request) the representatives of different movements considered as sects in order to allow
them to tell their opinion, so completing its information.

For confidentiality and public or personal security reasons, a number of witnesses have been heard in camera at their request.

Some have them have even been heard only by the President, assisted by member of the commission bureau, in order to preserve their
anonymity.

Finally, some rare witnesses preferred to transmit a written statement to the commission.

On the other hand, the commission also decided to transmit a mail to 71 associations, h, in the framework of its works, had been mentioned by
official Belgian authorities as possible sectarian movements (namely on the base of the criteria made by the French Parliamentary Commission)
and represent a danger for society or the individual. These associations have been invited to send a memorandum to the commission explaining
the goals pursed by their organisation and possibly refusing their possible sectarian and dangerous character. 47 organisations have replied.
The information they sent has been used by the commission to achieve this report. On the other hand, as stated before, the commission has
heard the movements which asked to be heard.

(...)

2. Hearing of Mr Ch . de Vroom, general commissary of the Judiciary Police

(...)

The speaker thinks that the observation is the smoothest way to deal with a sect and avoid problems. It is also possible to use latent information,
from first line police services.

The main difficulty lies in the fact that being part of a sect is not an offence. The police only intervenes when there is an offence or when there is a
doubt about the situation of the individuals, particularly minors.

Yet, within international organisations, there is little talk about the sectarian problem. Having participated to TEVI groups during twelve years, the
speaker says that he never has heard of it.

According to Mr de Vroom, the three most important sects in our country are :

     the Sahaya Yoga sect, the most dangerous one for him as they advise the separation between mother and child;
     the Scientology, whose recruitment is made within the police forces;
     Sukyo Mahikari.

(...)

In fact, when dealing with this subject, the PJ (Judiciary Police) members ask seven questions :

   1.Is member's freedom guaranteed?
   2.Is there a request of unconditional allegiance?
   3.Can members receive cures and do they keep their free mind in the health field?
   4.Are members obliged to give money which is not intended to the goals stated by the group, but to the enrichment of leaders?
   5.Do minors receive a sufficient protection in the framework of the work legislation, of school and health cares?
   6.Do they praise a fanatic philosophy, leading to the State destabilisation or heavy troubles of public order?

Mr de Vroom adds that the credulity of members is striking at the beginning. Then, they loose their free mind. The promise of a better world is
ever-present. At this moment, crook mechanisms are implemented through the promise of an intellectual, psychological or even emotional
benefit, leading so to a physical and psychological enslavement.

In this process, the dominance of a leader is essential. The sects are the field of a kind of intellectuals, often fed with oriental theories and the
research of another world. So we encounter a lot of health professions, especially in the psychological field.

Yet, we must say that the person within a sect never introduce a claim. Even when they leave, the information are hard to get, which makes police
job even harder.

For the rest, the most frequent offences are :

          crook;
          illegal practice of medicine
          tax evasion
          money withering;
          misuse of the legislation about non-profit making associations.

(...)

G. REPRESENTATIVES OF DEFENCE ASSOCIATIONS

a. In Belgium

1. Hearing of Mrs Nyssens, in charge of the "Association de defence de l'individu et de la famille" (ADIF)

To the attention of the commission, Mrs Nyssens provides, in a first step, with two proposals of the definition of a sect. As to her, on the
sociological point of view, a sectarian group is a group following a chief who pretends to have truth and salvation. The group acts in the interest
of the chiefs and his/her assistants. There is no external resort.

As far as law is concerned, it is a group which, for the sake or a fundamental law or liberty, violates every other laws (federal Belgian law, human
rights, children rights, international conventions).

The speaker draw the attention on the fact that in the US., the terms "sect" and "cult" have different meanings than in Europe.

Then she mentions the notion of a "force mind change" (brainwashing), in three steps :

     the physical step : the individual, adult or minor, is cut from his/her environment, housing, habits, family and friends. These practices aim at
     destabilising the individual;
     the affective step : the adept is cut from his/her family environment, his/her job and friends. The links with his/her past are broken. Yet,
     affection and kindness are given within the group;
     the intellectual step: by indoctrinating, the adept must forget all former theories and learn the new theories.

In such a state, the individual looses his/her autonomy, leading to loans, marriages, divorces, adoptions or forced sales.

For example, Mrs Nyssens quotes the judgements of the Melchior case (Brussels, Mons and Paris), and the Ecovie case. She also mentions
precedent cases about l'Ange Albert, Ecovie, le Patriarche, Yarden case, Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh or Moon.

(...)

The speaker provides with a list of criteria which may lead to identify a sectarian phenomenon. It was established during a congress held in
Barcelona in 1987 :

          non declaration to the identity of the group;
          intensive resort to the individual and/or group psychology;
          use of sacred texts or others;
          predominance of politics and economics;
          predominance of the emotional over the rational;
          acculturation or inculturation;
          systematic use of manicheism, syncretism, gnose, fundamentalism of integrism;
          totalitarian structure with international extent;
          use of force to change opinion;
          moral or intellectual impossibility to leave the group;
          non objective criticism of social reality;
          use of the charismatic power on member by the leader or of his/her team on his/her own benefit;
          compromising with civil and/or religious authorities to gain popular credibility.

Mrs Nyssens proposes to create a scientific study office of this phenomenon. It would be based on the principles of human dignity and
humankind progress, principles these groups want to refuse.

In answer to a question in this sense, Mrs Nyssens states that the ADIF has been founded in 1976 at the request of some individuals after the
Melchior case. It is an non-profit making association receiving no subsidies for the State (and which don't ask for them) and functions with small
donations of members.

(...)

For the rest, the speaker says to be able to find witnesses who could state the danger of Shri Mataji (Sahaya Yoga), Moon, Sukyo Mahikari,
Sokka Gakkai and Scientology. Yet, we must persuade these people to come and witness, which is not easy.

(...)

Finally, the speaker says not to have undergo delation claims, but she has been threatened by several groups.

4. Hearing of Mr Ch. Berlinger, physician and representative of the "Association of victims of illegal Practices of Medicine."

Mr Berliner founded in 1992 the "Association of victims of illegal Practices of Medicine." after the death of little Anaëlle B., on October 8 1991.
She had been cured in awful conditions by anthroposophy healers, a general homeopath doctor of which was revoked from the Orders of
Physicians.

The goal of this association was to help victims of such practices and gather as many witnesses as possible to keep the population informed.
Through the witnesses he gathered, Dr Berliner dealt with the problems of sects as numerous cases were directly linked with sectarian activities.

The witnesses says it seems to be a certain tolerance, in justice and in the public, against this kind of practices. The only cases in which he could
really help victims are those in which a doctor was involved...

According to the witness, it is urgent to create an official pluridisciplinary center, gathering all persons who wish to deal this problem efficiently
and coherently. Yet, the government has refuse to give the necessary credits for it.

After several years of activity, Mr Berliner sees that the sects strike all sociological layers and are focused around non conventional medicines.

(...)

Most sectarian practices lie on a pessimistic vision of things, in which the external world is said to be evil.

As far as medicine is concerned, Mr Berliner also underlines the danger of mind control. Taking theirs techniques from recent psychotherapies,
generally from the US., such as transactional analysis, bio-energy, PNL and other hypnosis, the sects aim at developing a state of dependence
within generally fragilised beings. These techniques are valid from a scientific point of view, but they are here taken away from their first
therapeutic goal.

There are also the depressive accidents of some sect members when they are aware they have been deceived and that they will have to take
contact with the external world, which is extremely difficult. It is similar with what drug-addicts feel when they stop taking drugs. These are critical
moments which can lead to severe depressions, delirious moments or even suicide.

The witness mentions several examples of intolerable medical practices :

     the Hamer theory says all cancers are caused by psychological conflicts and there is no use curing them by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or
     surgery. In Belgium, this theory has been applied to Dr Coste, today revoked for the Order of Physicians;
     the healing tendencies by praying or imposition of hands (antoinist sect, Father Tardif, Father Samuel);
     the system developed by l'IEREHU (human and universal energy) of Luong Minh Dang;
     Sukyo Mahikari which criticises without nuance traditional medicine and praises a medicine essentially made up of a kind of imposition of
     hands, passes, allowing to everybody to become a healer;
     Ecovie : the adepts lived in tepees, without any hygiene and were submitted to highly severe regimes; they had to make heavy physical
     efforts and had not enough sleep; nobody did call a doctor;
     the Horus sect in France : a child developed tetanus while his health book mentioned wrongly a vaccine;
     Yvonne Trubert, leading the IVI sect (Invitation to intense life), claims to heal the most serious diseases only using energetic theories, Hindu
     spirituality and soft medicines. As to IVI, there is no decease which can be healed. We must re-establish the harmonisation between the
     physical, energetical astral bodies opening the chakra blocked by the decease, allowing to make flow the energy, so we can cure any
     decease. Georgina Dufoix, former French minister of Health, marked her interest for this sect.

The gurus are often charismatic figures. They destroy families, causing a big affective but also financial misery.

Mr Berliner makes several suggestions :

     the creation of a toll free number;
     the creation of a documentation center about sects, which could be the equivalent of ADFI in Paris : a center with a service to help victims,
     a library, and gathering doctors, psychologists, sociologists, etc...;
     favouring the European, and event international, co-operation, because sects changes name and addresses very easily;
     organise conference to awaken children in last year of secondary schools with witnesses;
     include a large training on parallel medicine and sectarian phenomena in the medicine studies;
     create an association of physicians dealing with the sectarian problems under the medical point of view;
     create a file on the known alternative medicines, accompanied with a solid critical study, method already used successfully by Swiss
     cancerologists;
     put an end to the activities of naturopathy schools in which parallel medicines are taught. The persons going out these schools cannot
     practice medicine. In reality, they are yet tolerated. These institutions are making future gurus.

The witness also points out the role, sometimes dangerous, played by the media.

(...)

2. Hearing of Mr. J-A. Fisch, president of the "Circle of Defense of the Individual and the Family" (CDIF) in Luxembourg.

(...)

Sukyo Mahikari : the sect bought the Ansembourg castle (The Count Gaston d'Ansembourg is an important member of the sect) for 39 million of
Luxembourg francs only. 10% of the monthly income of adepts are given to an account in Luxembourg.

According to the witness, the refuse to resort to traditional medicine. The members are practising a kind of imposition of hands.

Father Luc, director of the secondary section of ISMA in Arlon, and at least five professors are members of the sect.

(...)

10. Hearing of Mr D. Lefebre and D. De Groeve, representatives of Sukyo Mahikari

a) Introduction by Mr Lefebre, director of the general assembly of the non-profit making association and Mr De Groeve
secretary-treasurer and spokesman of the movement.

Mr Lefebre points out that Sukyo Mahikari is an organisation saying that man, nature, earth, solar system and the universe do not exist by
chance, but have a common origin in a unique energy source : God, creator of heaven and earth, Su God (meaning God Lord).

The creator makes everything appear with wise, love and will, i.e. with the force of thought, the force of love and will. The man is his highest work,
at the contact surface between the visible reality and the invisible one, at the balance point between the spiritual force and the material force.
Man carries this three characteristics in his being and his heart, in his soul to take part to the creation, on heaven and earth. It is his mission and
his spiritual challenge : freely choosing in the truth, create and develop harmonious love. In his free choice, man can yet take a central position
with as consequence that the others are subordinated to him. This leads to the conflict, to the resistance, to hatred, to the war and to murder.
Many material means are developed to make his domination felt on the others.

Personal life, as well as human history, show that there are a lot of joy and sufferings, happiness and misfortunes. In the present phase of
creation, God Creator wants once again to reinforce in man the spiritual force and inspiration and purify them to keep on building paradise on
earth. To do this, he allows man to transmit his power of creation or his concentrated and intense divine light through hand palm. A session can
last from 40 to 50 minutes. When the available time is lower, members only give light to the front, seat of the interior force of man, also called
third eye.

The two basic activities of the organisation are :

     give divine light as much as possible;
     thank God creator sincerely for all joys and pains we have in our life. Because nothing is due to chance in the human existence. The
     difficulty of life must be a stating point to go on evolving, in freedom and truth, towards love and harmony.

The organisation of Sukyo Mahikari must in fact support this spiritual mission in general. It is so subordinated to the mission of helping God
Creator to transmit the force of his light and his teachings to all those who wish accept voluntarily to co-operate to his divine plan.

Mr De Groeve indicates that Sukyo Mahikari was born in 1959 in Japan.

According to article 3 of the statutes of the organisation (Belgian Monitor, June 13 1996), the objectives of Sukyo Mahikari are similar in the
entire world and are fundamentally pacific, namely :

     the veneration of God, Creator of the universe and of mankind;
     spreading the teachings of his founder Kotama Okada and his successor, Kouko Okada;
     guiding those interested in the application of these teachings for their spiritual evolution and to achieve a harmonious and radiant
     civilisation where to live in peace.

The world headquarters of the organisation is in Japan, where it benefits from the status of religious organisation according to Japanese law.

There are also five continental centres. For Europe and Africa, the common centre is now at the Castle of Ansembourg, in Luxembourg. From a
juridical point of view, it is an international association. The ASBL (non-profit making association) made in Belgium in 1975 is also member of
this international organisation.

The accountancy of the ASBL has been put on a computer since 1996. It was chosen to use a complete accountancy (according to the account
system in double part). The organisation is helped by a recognized accountant office. It was also decided to make an external audit of the
accountancy.

According to point D.1. of the internal statutes of Sukyo Mahikari A.S.B.L. most running means of the Sukyo Mahikari organisation are acquired
worldly by free donations or offerings, by initiated members and sympathisers. Even though these offerings have important spiritual meaning and
value, they are not compulsory.

It is asked to members a monthly contribution of 150 francs (100 francs for students). On the base of figures from January to October 1996, the
centre of Schepdaal got an average of 166 francs by donations, which shows that members gives spontaneously an amount higher than that
demanded as contribution.

However, you don't need to be a member of the association to be authorised to go to one of the centres of Sukyo Mahikari. According to
statistics, is seems that two visitors out of three give an offering when visiting the centre.

To become member of Sukyo Mahikari and follow the 3-day elementary initiation course, it is asked only once a contribution of 5.500 francs
(5.000 for students). The member can follow this course as frequently as he wishes. Any extra contribution is free. It is advises to those who wish
to become members of the organisation to follow first this course, without any obligation or involvement.

There are several categories of offerings, corresponding to their destination. Their amount is generally little important and seldom exceed 1.000
francs.

From 1993 to 1995, the income of the ASBL of the offerings (members and non members) are globally estimated for Belgium between 17 and
20 millions per year. During this period, some 850 persons (distributed in the 5 centers) regularly gave their monthly contribution.

If you divide the total yearly amount only by the number of active members, you have an amount of 21.765 francs per donator, per year. In
comparison, a person smoking a half pack of cigarettes per day would give 23.360 francs per year.

On the organisational level, Mr Lefebre states that the spiritual organisation of Sukyo Mahikari is guided now by the daughter of the founder, Mrs
Keishu Okada, who guarantees the basic philosophy of the movement. The teachings are transmitted from Japan to the continental centers,
which then communicate them to the national centers (main and local).

The persons in charge in every centers are appointed by the Japanese headquarters, on proposal of the country in question on the national level.
The persons in charge of the centers officially recognized by the association (the main center of Schepdaal and the local centers of
Antwerp-Berchem, Bree, Houthalen and Verviers) are invited to respect and work in relation with the philosophy of the movement, but they can
decide on an autonomous base of the practical organisation of their activities. Theses centers are dependant on the organisation.

On the other hand, the persons who became members of the association and so authorised to give light can freely organise their own meetings
at home. They determine the number and the contains of them. The electricity and heating costs are on participant or organiser's expenses., if no
contribution is scheduled. So there are different "circles of light". After some years, some members may have less contact with the different
official centers.

The difficulties within the association are resolved by dialogue and exchange of ideas. . Any member who wish it, even if he/she is a person in
charge, may leave the movement without being disturbed

b) Questions

1) Organisation of the movement - Number of members

Mr. De Groeve states that all local centers in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands are connected on the organisational level, to the main
center of Schepdaal-Dilbeek.

Now, the ASBL Sukyo Mahikari Belgium has four waged persons. The director is paid by the main center, while the wages of the three others
are paid by the ASBL.

According to the witness, it is difficult to determine the number of active members, because anyone is free to come and go and some do not pay
their monthly contribution on a regular base. The witness assesses to 800-850, the number of persons who do regular offerings to the movement.
In total, there are however more donators.

According to Mr Lefebre, since the existence of the movement in Belgium, some 4.000 to 5.000 persons have followed the elementary course.

You have to add to that amount a number of persons who followed this course without obligation and never became active members of the
organisation.

After some years, some persons have left the movement for different reasons. Those who wonders what the movement can bring them abandon
rapidly. On the other hand, those who want to give light to others to help them become stronger, will stay longer.

2) Localisation of the continental center of Europe and Africa - The role played by Mr Vandenhende

In 1982 was founded the first European and African organisation for the spiritual purification by God's light, international association with his
center at Tervuren (Belgian Monitor April 1 1982).

In 1983, the seat of the international association moved to Brussels.

When Mr Lefebre contacted the movement in 1985, Mr Vandenhende was director of the Belgian ASBL and secretary-treasurer of the
international association. He also took part to the foundation of the ASBL Mahikari Luxembourg. He resigned in 1988.

In January 1987, the Grand Castle of Ansembourg was bought directly by the headquarters of Sukyo Mahikari in Japan; the Count of
Ansembourg, member of the movement, was no longer in grade of maintaining it.

Mr De Groeve adds that the gardens have been restored thanks to subsidies given by the European Commission. this project being chosen as a
pilot project of preserving the European architectural heritage. The expenses linked with the purchase of the land and buildings and with their
restoration were supported by the headquarters.

Contrary to what M. Lefebre thought in 1992-93, the State of Luxembourg took no part in the restoration of the castle.

From 1987 on, the regional activities for Europe and Africa are increasingly concentrating on Ansembourg, to the prejudice of the Belgian
International association which is still located in Brussels. On May 4 1992, the headquarters of this association have been transferred to
Schepdaal. Finally, on July 11 1996, he Belgian international association went to liquidation and all assets and liabilities have been transferred
to the new "International Association Sukyo Mahikari" set up in Ansembourg on July 9 1996 according to the low of Luxembourg. The Belgian
ASBL is between the founders of the new international association. .

In 1994, Mr. Sasaki become president of the international association. He immediately decides to examine and finalise the law and financial
aspects of the organisation. On the Belgian level, it was then decided to make an external audit of the ASBL accountancy.

In accordance with the regional Europe-Africa headquarters, questions were also asked about the lax statute of the main Japanese
headquarters, responsible of the organisation and the designation of the Europe-Africa direction.

On October 16 1986, it was decided to create a distinct commercial company, LH. Yokoshuppan Europe SA (which became L.H. Europe SA)
for the material organisation of the movement (management of the buildings, publications, congresses, etc.). The capital was first 1,5 millions
francs, and has gone to 3,5 millions francs today. This company, the headquarters of which are in the Ansembourg castle, are under Sukyo
Mahikari control.

3) The Organisation emblem

Mr Lefebre points out that this emblem is presented under the form of a hexagonal star in which a cross is embedded. This symbol unites two
opposite force, the yin and the yang. When these two opposed forces are balanced, God gives stability and prosperity on the mental, spiritual
and physical fields. According to Mahikari, the prosperous individual (in the material sense) is the one who has sufficient financial means to
wholly develop itself as a person (thought, will, devotion) and who tends to harmony and balance instead of feeling commiseration for himself
only, hatred and blaming the others. We couldn't think of promising to members the prosperity in the traditional sense of the term.

4) Recruiting modes

Mr Lefebre states that recruiting is made on a by-word-of-mouth base.

Till Recently, and mainly in 1994, the witness has given a series of conferences in tenth cities and towns in his region, with an audience of 15 - 20
people per meeting. Few people continued to go to the movement. Each time, leaflets clearly identified the nature and the identity of the
movement.

Already in 1991-1993, such conferences were held in different towns in Brussels and Antwerp. After the criticisms about Sukyo Mahikari, it was
decided to put a (temporary) end to this kind of activities.

Now, only conferences for those really interested are held twice a year in some centres of the organisation.

Sukyo Mahikari has also taken part to alternative exhibitions. This allowed the creation of a small core in Gent, but these activities were
abandoned, the movement thinks it was not the best way to transmit its philosophy.

Mr De Groeve adds there is no selection criteria for a socio-economic or social point of view within the organisation. All person who, being
properly prepared, wants to get involved is welcome.

Most members come into contact with Sukyo Mahikari via their close environment. The witness, for example, heard of the movement via the wife
of his doctor.

Mr Lefebre also says that all social categories, all age groups and all kind of training are present within the movement.

5) The basic initiation

In answer to the question of how it is possible that the initiated are already in grade of transmitting the Light after only three days of course, Mr
Lefebre points out that the creating energy, the divine light, the initiated can transmit by the palm, is transmitted to the them directly by God
thanks to omitama, a kind of medal attached to a necklace they carry around their neck. and which functions as an antenna to pick up vibrations.

Candidates are advised to attend the elementary course, without obligation. If they wish to become member, they give only once a contribution of
5.500 francs (5.000 for students).

6) Does Sukyo Mahikari have a hierarchical structure?

Mr De Groeve says that there are also two other initiation levels (medium and higher). The different levels correspond to the degree of
involvement of the member within the organisation. Of course, for responsibility positions, people from the higher course are called, as often as
possible.

The medium course lasts four days and is organised in the regional Europe-Africa headquarters. A contribution of 17.000 francs is asked.

The higher course is held in Japan and costs 70.000 yen, 23.000 francs.

7) Access to cult places

Mr De Groeve says that, according to article A2 of the internal statutes of Sukyo Mahikari ASBL , Sukyo Mahikari centers are accessible to all
who, respecting the particular aspect of these places, wish sincerely to help other people, work to raise their own soul and improve the world and
our society. Also, everyone may leave the association without restraints.

When asked why, according to article A5, the access of the Sukyo Mahikari centers can be refused to any person who is not in order with the
laws in our country, Mr De Groeve answers that the statutes aims at informing members of their rights and obligations, and assuring some
protection of the organisation from the external world. One of the basic value in the Sukyo Mahikari teachings is that the citizen must respect the
low of his/her country. Of course, the association gives the possibility to everyone to know the activities of the movement and does not control
systematically the identity documents of the visitors. Yet, it is obvious that persons who persist not respecting the law can make prejudice to the
movement.

Mr Lefebre adds that the association wishes that its members has at least a valid residence permit.

8) Use of voluntary staff

One of the main elements of the philosophy of the movement is the gratitude expressed to God by the offering and by voluntary work. In this
context, it is normal that a relatively high number of voluntary people make some tasks in the different centers : welcoming the participants,
maintenance of the buildings and gardens. The persons in charge of four local centers are also voluntary people. They generally have a
professional work. Some are pensioned. There is no community life within the movement.

9) The art of Mahikari : medical practices of the movement

According to article B2 of the internal statutes of Sukyo Mahikari ASBL, the art of Mahikari is not a healing art. So we cannot make a diagnose
or go against it. We can leave everybody free in its choice about the medical cure.

Yet, in a document of the movement (What is Mahikari?), in a paragraph entitled : who can give light?, it is stated that : giving light through the art
of Mahikari seems to be the most efficient method to overcome the psychological disorders, depressions, nevroses, mental troubles, because it
reaches the source of these disorders going back to the cause, the origin of the illness. The physical can also be relieved by the irradiation of the
True Light in different points of the body. The extent of the problems which can be solved, from minor ones such as cuts burns to most serious
ones such as hepatitis, chronic hypertension, diabetes, asthma, heart, liver and stomach diseases is widespread.

In face of this contradiction, Mr De Groeve says that this leaflet, written in 1981, is a first local initiative which is no longer used today and that the
organisation in 1988 has built the Yoko clinic in Takayama in relation with the most modern medical norms.

About the hypothetical return of investment of this little clinic of 19 beds, but equipped with very sophisticated and very complete appliances, the
witness says that the financial means were provided by the Sukyo Mahikari organisation and are mainly coming from offerings.

The organisation wish to invest in pilot projects privileging the link between the spiritual element and traditional medicine. This clinic mainly works
as a polyclinic.

Mr Lefebre adds it is a project initiated by the founder of the movement.

Mr De Groeve points out that in the early 60s, the founder of the movement has focused on the over consumption of drugs, at a moment when the
people believes blindly in the benefits of all these products. Now everybody agrees on this subject.

The art of Mahikari is a daily spiritual purification technique, but it does not aim at replacing medicine. The internal statutes of the association
advise to person with serious physical and mental trouble to consult a doctor.

Mr Lefebre insists on the fact that the art of Mahikari is a spiritual purification art. After some time though, this concept has lost of its precision
and people suffering from heavy mental and physical problems have finally thought that Mahikari was synonym of healing.

In man, every physical and mental trouble is generally the result of a spiritual unbalance. We can thus act positively on the mental and physical
health of somebody by restoring, purifying and reinforcing his/her spiritual link with God.

According to Mahikari, as man has been created by God, nothing in his existence happens by chance. In this context, he must consider the
difficulties of life (relational problems, divorce, alcoholism, serious diseases,...) as a starting point and tries to evolve and determine what the
sense of this suffering is. There is no need commiserating on oneself or blaming the other and trying to get revenge. It is better to try to accept
the inevitable and modify its own behaviour.

Mahikari does not refuse traditional medicine, but asks for a very selective use of drugs. So, such phenomena as nose discharges, suffering,
diarrhoea, fever, mucus evacuation, spots which allow to purify human body from toxins, are not to be immediately fought with chemicals. It is
possible, according to the witness, to diminish a high body temperature by giving light to the patient. A too fast intake of drugs diminishes the
physical resistance.

The witness says that the diagnose of a doctor is always taken into account.

(...)

They admit that former texts can in fact seem aggressive and without nuance against medicine you have not attended courses. They points out
that, in some cases in which medicine is unsuccessful, the patient has succeeded in overcoming his illness thanks to giving light, which fortified
his spiritual resistance.

When asked if it is exact that Sukyo Mahikari claims to heal serious illness, such as cancer by its only spiritual practices, Mr Lefebre answers
that the more serious is the illness, the more important it is to use different methods simultaneously. So, patients suffering from a cancer in the
terminal stage have finished their life without suffering (without taking drugs), under medical assistance, receiving light. This would not prevent a
patient who wishes to resort to traditional medicine from, for example, undergoing a surgery absolutely freely.

(...)

The witnesses are then confronted to an extract of the teaching of Oshienushisama (6 September 1987) in which it is said that the
disappearance of cancerous cells in a very short time is unthinkable for present medicine, but, often, the "yokoshi" made this kind of experience,
thanks to God's light. It is for example mentioned two members and their son whose cancer of the left knee disappeared thanks to the intensive
transmission of Light.

When asked if such witnesses and so ambiguous texts do not risk to orientate the choice of the ill persons who are in a very vulnerable position,
Mr Lefebre points out that this quotation must only be understood if in its global context of the Mahikari teaching. The disappearance of the
cancerous cells has, according to him, been effectively stated by doctors. For other patients, the art of Mahikari cannot prevent for fatal issue.
We could not think of giving false hope to patients. What is essential it the way they cope with the problem, the decease.

According to the witness, the persons who have a serious illness are always followed by medical staff. No patient receives instructions inviting
him/her to abandon such a medical help, all the contrary.

(...)

11) Offerings and revenues of the movement

(...)

When asked if in establishing a closed link between offering and spirituality, the organisation did not make a pressure on its members Mr De
Groeve answers that the notion of gratitude (as a child against its parents) is central in the Mahikari's philosophy. This gratitude is expressed
namely by voluntary work or different kinds of offerings.

(...)

The offerings are normally done and classified on a daily base mentioning the name of the donators and this for two reasons :

     the founder wanted by that way to insist on the respectful character of the offering to God;
     such a list allows to justify for a fiscal and law point of view, the provenance of the association funds.

(...)

This information is still recorded on a very fragmented base, as it is made manually

(...)

12) Organisation of the succession

Mr Lefebre says that ten days after the death of the founder Kotama Okada (also called Sukuinushisama), his adoptive daughter, Keishu Okada,
has succeeded in her father's activities.

This succession was however contested by the person in charge of the material organisation of the movement. A trial followed and the material
assets of the organisation, excepted the buildings of the local communities, were given to mandatories.

Keishu Okada has, continued the her father's mission and many members go with her.

After the trial, in 1978, the movement whose name was Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan, changed name to become : Sukyo Mahikari.

The judge made no sentence about the spiritual inheritage and decided both parties were authorised to use the revelations and the written of the
founder.

(...)

14) Actions focused on the young people

Mr De Groeve explains that the activities organised for the young people are similar to those of classical young movement. (...) The young people
work in concrete applications of Mahikari philosophy and ideals. They organise monthly meetings. (...) They make activities in relation with the
environment, the biological agriculture, social themes, etc. Finally there are holidays camps similar to those organised by young movements.

(...)

Ill. Information elements provided during in camera hearings

37) Sukyo Mahikari

According to a witness, it would be one of the most dangerous sectarian organisation in our country.

This movement began to set up in Europe twenty years ago. The founder "Sukuisushisama" visited our continent for the first time in 1973. Sukyo
Mahikari developed with a high discretion, without making noise. The movement adapt itself very easily in relation with the criticisms they get
(suppression of the streched arm salute, withdrawal of some documents,...).

(...)

There is also a cult of the ancestors, but according to a witness, this would have as a main goal to keep the members in a fear state. They are
especially asked to change their mind and obey. Sukyo Mahikari tries to reinforce the feeling of guilty of its adepts who must purify themselves
of the mistakes they made in previous lives. They are invited to work voluntarily in the organisation in order to compensate their mistakes. In
reality, the group created a so-called problem in order to give it a solution.

According to two witnesses, the objectives of Sukyo Mahikari are the lust for money and an expansionist will The movement also announce the
end of time. Su God will purify the earth by fire. When mankind is destroyed, he will then create the new society of the 21st holy century. The
survivors will be the Mahikari who will lead the world.

According to a witness, Sukyo Mahikari is a very hierarchised group. There is a very important Japanese staff and everything is decided by the
hierarchy any act, the member must ask the agreement of his/her direct superior. The member must always obey and ask advise...

It seems to be a lot of movement among the leaders. So, when the daughter of the founder, Keishu Okada, called "Oshienushisama", went in
Europe in 1993, many leaders were transferred to other centers.

(...)

Main facts attributed to the movement :

     The recruitment is generally done by ear and mouth. Members of the group are recruiting within their family, their friend and relatives, etc.
     There would be a recruiting table. it seems that the profile of recruited persons would be that of vulnerable persons with sentimental or
     other problems. (...) To "be promoted", members have to follow some teachings (sometimes in a repeated manner) and recruit a minimum
     of two new members. During the "seduction" period, the new members may keep their own religion. The sect limits itself to generalities at
     the beginning not to gainsay the other religions. Only after some time Sukyo Mahikari's thought is imposed to members. So, in the third
     course, it is said that the Christ did not die on the cross. Then they evolve to a purely "Mahikari" conception. People become member
     unbeknownst to their family. The course document may not be shown to anyone.

(...)

      the "art of Mahikari" : a witness says that this group is replacing the traditional medical cure by imposing hands and soul purification
     techniques.

     according to a witness, children also attend meetings. If a child is not so enthusiastic, the movement is very careful and advises not to insist
     too much.
     becoming member of this association causes a rupture with the family environment when other members of the family don't wish to
     participate. They are rejected.
     as indicated, two witnesses says the main goal of this association is to collect money. One of them has blank receipts indicating members
     are encouraged to collect money and do proselitism. To express their gratitude to Su God, the members work voluntarily and/or give
     different kinds of offerings (thank Su God for receiving light, participation to the building of the big world temple, ...). These offerings are put
     in a big box in the center of the place. The name of the member and the amount of the offering are indicated. The members have also to
     put their name in a registry when they go to the temple. More over, the purchase of books is also registered. A witness says Sukyo
     Mahikari leaders take huge financial profits from all these operations. The installation of the continental center for Europe and Africa in
     Luxembourg, an important financial place, would be no chance at all. .. According to a witness, the movement would give an average 4.9
     millions francs per year to Japan and 670,000 francs to the Luxembourg organisation.

     the celebrations organised once a year at the Castle of Ansembourg, such as other gatherings, are framed by a young elite in uniform, the
     Mahikari Tai who cares for the good development of the meeting with talky-walkies. The Mahikari Tai are a young group who regularly
     discuss about teachings and organise various activities. (...)

     a witness says he got no pressure when he left. Yet he was regularly contacted by phone to ask him if he will come back and to give him the
     dates and hours of the next meetings.

     When members expresses some doubts, they are said they don't work enough. A witness says he/she knows a member who had to be
     confined in a psychiatric hospital. According to him/her, Sukyo Mahikari teachings causes a destructuration of the personality. He/she
     thinks that some members of his/her family have become better thanks to the force of their faith in Su God, but, as to him/her, the group
     presents an obvious danger on the mental side, because the member is no long in grade to realise if something is going wrong. The
     believe in "Mahikari" can modify his/her personality, vision of the world to a point that he/she misses the situation completely. This is mind
     control, a kind of totalitarism. So, according to the witness, if the Mahikari doctrine was only hot air, all seems logical when you live inside
     the group. It seems to be difficult to come back in our society after being member of this group, because it a completely different world. The
     members are mentally isolated from the rest of the world. The same witness indicates he had to stay home at long after leaving the group
     to be able "to rebuild him/herself, he/she laid in bed, watching television, on the verge of suicide.

                                                           Part II

Here are some excerpts about Sukyo Mahikari.

B. International links between sects.

Pp 110-111

(...)

Some big international sects have European centers responsible of a geographical area (Copenhague for Scientology, UK for The Family,
Luxembourg for Sukyo Mahikari).

(...)

Luxembourg is attracting some sectarian groups because of the facilities they provide to transfer international funds (Scientology, Sukyo
Mahikari,...).

(...)

C. Aspects of life within a sect.

P 155

1. Working within the sect.

a. It appears from a series of witnesses that some movements make work their member for free of for a very low amount of money. Here are
some examples the Commission have found :

(...)

     Sukyo Mahikari who demands to its members to work for the center.

(...)

3. Medical treatment

P 160

a. Many sectarian groups choices alternative or soft medicine forms and advice their members against traditional medicine or prevent them from
using it. For example :

(...)

     Sukyo Mahikari : healing by transmitting light and omitama;

(...)

D. Rupture with the environment

P. 166

1. Many witnesses declared that their partner, child or parent when they joined the organisation caused a rupture with them. Examples :

(...)

     witnesses who lost contact with their partner, who went to live with others members of Ex Deo Nascimur, Sukyo Mahikari, or within the
     community applying R. Steiner's principles;

(...)

PP 176-177

9. It is clear that several harmful sectarian organisations are promoting totalitarian ideas which may be considered as antidemocratic, that's we
can tell after examining the basic texts of the following movements : Ange Albert, Raël, Franternité Blanche Universelle, Sukyo Mahikari,
Scientology, Nouvelle Acropole, Jehova's witnesses.

(...)

P. 180

Sukyo Mahikari insists on the fact that man is saturated with impurities and must be purified by the light. The more you give, the more your
purification is complete.

Donations must also be given in sign of gratitude. Sukyo Mahikari teaches the members they must be grateful for receiving light. By making
donations, they reinforce the holy link between God, oneself and the holy medal (omitama).

(...)

It appears from witnesses, publications and documents studied (by the commission) that various groups are transferring abroad the product of
theirs activities (Opus Dei, L'Oeuvre, Scientology, Moon, La Famille, Sukyo Mahikari). ("It is also considered as an abuse by the Commission in
pp. 187-189").

(...)
 

SUKYO MAHIKARI VZW
                 Godsdienstige vereniging
                 Pedestraat 32
                 1703 Schepdaal
                 Tel.: 02/569.25.80 - Fax: 02/569.28.56
 
 
 

offrent leurs services au centre; (voir aussi le chapitre C: aspects de la vie au sein d’une secte). 10.  L’Eglise de Scientologie constitue un exemple spécifique.  Ce mouvement utilise chacun de ces ca- naux.
10.1.  Cadeaux et donations: L’Eglise de Sciento- logie incite à faire des donations par la formule des partenaires. L’IAS (association internationale des scientologues) intervient également grâce à des do-
nations  dans  de  grandes  campagnes  dans  divers pays. 10.2.  Activités commerciales: —  L’Eglise de Scientologie offre des cours aux particuliers pour remédier au manque de personnali-
té sur la base d’une série de tests psychologiques et de l’électromètre. Ce diagnostic permet de déceler de prétendues  déficiences du fonctionnement psycholo-
gique de ces personnes. L’Eglise de Scientologie offre alors une série de cours qui permettent de remédier à ces déficiences. Ces cours sont toutefois très coûteux.
Les intéressés sont ainsi asservis à leur processus de développement qu’ils ne peuvent accomplir que par le biais de cette série de cours très coûteux. Le prix
exorbitant de tels cours produit une multitude d’ef- fets négatifs: fonctionnement inadéquat des élèves concernés,  catastrophes  financières,  au  moins  un
suicide (en France), divorces et perturbation des rela- tions entre partenaires. —  A travers une série d’entreprises qui lui sont liées, l’Eglise de Scientologie s’adresse également
aux entreprises. En Belgique, deux sociétés commer- ciales, Business Efficiency (SPRL) et U-Man Bel- gium, exercent des activités de consultance pour les entreprises. Ces entreprises utilisent la technologie
de l’Eglise de Scientologie sans faire elles-même par- tie de l’église. L’utilisation de la technologie de la Scientologie  implique  le  versement  de  droits d’auteurs à WISE (World Institute of Scientology En-
terprises).  La  Scientologie  possède  également d’autres entreprises commerciales qui se chargent de la vente de livres pour ce mouvement. —  de  aan  de  commissie  ter  kennis  gebrachte
praktijken van een psychotherapeut die zijn patiën- ten  een  gebouw  laat  afbreken  en  de  stenen  laat schoonmaken. Daarbovenop dienden ze nog erg hoge
vergoedingen voor de zogenaamde therapie te beta- len; —  Nieuw Akropolis dat «vrijwilligerswerk» in de «school» eist, zoals onthaal, huishoudelijk werk en secretariaatswerk;
—  de getuige die een gewezen lid is van een chris- tengemeente en die per week 40 tot 60 uur diende te werken in de boekenwinkel van de gemeente met vrijstelling van stempelcontrole;
—  Sûkyô Mahikari die van zijn volgelingen dienst- verlening aan het centrum eist; (zie ook hoofdstuk C: aspecten van het leven bin- nen een sekte). 10.  Een specifiek voorbeeld vormt de Scientology-
kerk. Deze beweging maakt gebruik van elk van deze kanalen. 10.1.  Giften en schenkingen: de Scientology-kerk lokt schenkingen uit via de formule van de partners.
Ook de IAS (internationale vereniging van scientolo- gen) doet schenkingen voor grote campagnes in ver- schillende landen. 10.2. Commerciële activiteiten: —  De  Scientology-kerk  biedt  aan  particulieren
cursussen aan ter remediëring van tekorten in de persoonlijkheid op basis van een reeks zogenaamde psychologische tests en de elektrometer. Op basis van deze diagnosestelling worden zogenaamde te-
kortkomingen in het psychologisch functioneren van deze mensen vastgesteld. De Scientology-kerk biedt dan een reeks cursussen aan die deze tekortkomin- gen kunnen verhelpen. Die cursussen zijn evenwel
erg duur.  Bovendien worden mensen via deze formu- le tot slaaf gemaakt van hun eigen ontwikkelingspro- ces, iets wat ze slechts kunnen verwezenlijken via die reeks erg dure cursussen. De exorbitante kost-
prijs van soortgelijke cursussen heeft geleid tot een lange reeks negatieve gevolgen : inadequaat functio- neren van de betrokken cursisten, financiële cata- strofes, minstens één zelfmoord (in Frankrijk), echt-
scheidingen en gestoorde relaties tussen partners. —  Via  een  reeks  gerelateerde  ondernemingen richt de Scientology-kerk zich ook tot bedrijven. In België doen twee commerciële vennootschappen als
Business Efficiency (SPRL) en U-Man Belgium aan consulting voor bedrijven. Die bedrijven maken ge- bruik van de technologie van de Scientology-kerk, zonder zelf tot de kerk te behoren. Voor het gebruik
van deze technologie moeten auteursrechten betaald worden aan WISE (World Institute of Scientology Enterprises). De Scientology-kerk heeft nog andere commerciële ondernemingen die zich bezighouden
met de verkoop van boeken voor deze beweging.

09/01/1997: Ook zes Ukkelse agenten in ,,gevaarlijke'' sekte
                  Zes politieagenten van het Ukkelse gemeentekorps, onder wie een adjunct-commissaris, riskeren een tuchtstraf nadat het Comité P hen betrapt
                  had op lidmaatschap van een Japanse sekte. De politiemannen verzamelden op een adres in Beersel, waar ze met andere adepten rituelen
                  bedreven eigen aan de Sukyo Mahikari-beweging. Het Ukkelse gemeentebestuur onderzoekt welke sancties het moet treffen.

Scientology: http://religion.scientology.nl/pdf/part03.pdf