Sweden

Sweden has become the leading producer of matches in the world. What conditions made this possible? And who was reponsible for making it happen? I will try to shed light upon these questions in the following article.

It all began in the region called Småland located in the south west of Sweden. In 1815 in the town of Jönköping, a man named Johan Edvard Lundström was born. After studying at university and a period of work at a local newspaper he and his younger brother, Carl Frans, started in 1845 a matchmaking firm. Johan's innovative mind and Carl's business acumen were the ideal combination for success. First they hired a place, but soon after they bought an estate on the shore of Lake Vättern and built a factory there. Today, this factory is all but a museum... but well worth a visit. Why did they choose to locate the factory in Jönköping? The conditions for establishing an industy could have been better - it was a small town and it had no connection to the sea... The apparent reasons were that there was a good source of willing workers available, the Lundström brothers had their roots in the city and that they had established good financial contacts there. The two brothers worked hard, and step by step their business got better and better.

One very important event in the Swedish match industry (as well as for the Jönköping factory) was the invention of the safety match. In 1844, Gustaf Erik Pasch, a professor in chemistry, invented the "safety match". Pasch was a partner in "J.S. Bagge & co:s Kemiska fabrik" of Stockholm, which was established in 1836 and was at that time the first match factory existing in Sweden . The poisonous yellow phosphorus was now swapped for nonpoisonous red phosphorus.; the phosporus was impregnated into the striking surface on the side of the box; and the head of each match was made of ingredients which would create enough friction and combustion to ensure a steady flame. The matches would only ignite if the matchstick was rubbed against the striking surface, and were therefore called safety matches. These matches were at first made in Stockholm, but soon the production ceased because it was to expensive to make red phosphorus. Johan Edvard Lundström was the one who made improvments to the match, patented it and started to manufacture it. The match received a medal at the "World Exhibition" in Paris 1855. Due to its safety-benefits, Lagermans construction machines (which allowed mass manufacture) and the regulation that forbade the making of phosphorus matches, the match became an instant success story. Today the safety match is the most popular match sold in the world.

Jönköping soon became famous for its good quality. The success of the match-factory in Jönköping resulted in a growing number of match producers in Sweden. "If they can do it, why shouldn't we be able to do it too" was the cry. By 1876 there were 38 factories operating at the same time! And altogether there have been at least 121 different Swedish match-factories in existance. The increasing competition among the factories led to the following amalgamations:

1887

Swedish Match Company

Lovers Tändsticksfabrik (1872-1876)
Ystads Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1887)
Wexiö Tändsticksfabrik (1870-1910)
Fredrikdahls Tändsticksfabrik (1887-1913)
Gustafsbergs Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1914)
Lindahls Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1887)
1903

Jönköping & Vulcans Tändsticksaktiebolag

Jönköpings Tändsticksfabrik (1844-....)
Vulcans Tändsticksfabrik (1868-....)
Jönköpings Westra Tändsticksfabrik (1881-1971)
Westerviks Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1874)
Uddevalla Tändsticksfabrik (1874-1934)
Annebergs Tändsticksfabrik (1866-1934)
Wänersborgs Tändsticksfabrik  (1848-1934)
Junebro Tändsticksfabrik (1910-1914)
1913

AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker

Swedish Match Company (see above)
Kalmar Tändsticksfabrik (1907-1967)
Mönsterås Tändsticksfabrik (1892-1967)
Sirius Tändsticksfabrik (1905-1913)
Södertelje Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1908)
Hvetlanda Tändsticksfabrik (1870-1904)
Svenska Tändsticks AB (1882-1913)
1917

Svenska Tändsticks Aktiebolaget (STAB)

Jönköping & Vulcans Tändsticksaktiebolag (see above)
AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker (see above)

The leader of the latter, STAB (founded on the 4th of december 1917 in Stockholm), became a very famous director indeed, his name being Ivar Kreuger. This man had a vision :"to establish a worldwide match industry of which he was the monopist supplier". Kreuger bought up small match factories all over the world, shut them down, and built new factories which could cope with the competition. Intimidation was the name of the game, especially in Asis, and those who refused to comply were forced out of business. Between 1925 and 1930 he granted 17 countries loans - with the total monetary sum for these being 1,2 milliards. In return he obtained a monopoly of sorts in selling matches. From the income of selling matches in monopoly markets the loans could be repaid. Ivar Kreuger built 250 matchfactories in 17 non-european countries and had factories in all of the European countries except Spain, France and Russia. Unfortunately he played a risky game and the concern ended up in crisis during the "depression" after the Wall Street Crash. Faced with the collapse of his empire, and with the authorities closing in, it was truly ironic that on the 12th of March 1932 Ivar Kreuger died in Paris. It has still not been proven that he commited suicide or if he was murdered - but that's a different story!

The Swedish match industry is still the leading match producing nation with factories in countries all over the world. But the match has faced a most dangerous threat the last couple of years: the lighter. Swedish match through its subsidiaries (for example Arenco) has tried to diversify but only time will tell if it is successful. The future of the match doesn't look very good but Sweden has a rich and colourful history in match making as it is plain to see.

List of Swedish Factories

 

1. Amundstorps Tändsticksfabrik 1860-1861























































 
2. Annebergs Tändsticksfabrik 1866-1934
3. Arboga Tändsticksfabrik 1865-1867
4. Arvika Tändsticksfabrik 1848-1851
5. Bagges, J.S & Co. Tändsticksfabrik, Stockholm 1836-1848
6. Blombacka Tändsticksfabrik 1875-1878
7. Bla Portens Tändsticksfabrik, Karlskrona 1876-1884
8. Borkhults Tändsticksfahrik 1863-1869
9. Brobergs Tändsticksfabrik, Stockholm 1872-1873
10. Carlslunds Tändsticksfabrik, Hvetlanda 1868-1904
11. Carlslunds Tändsticksfabrik, Christinehamn 1863-1879
12. Dianelunds Tändsticksfabrik, Stockholm 1875-1878
13. Edman & Co Tändsticksfabrik, Stockholm 1843-1847
14. Ekesjö Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1875
15. Ekesjö-Marianelunds Tändsticksfabrik 1871-1879
16. Elisefarms Nya Tändsticksfabrik, Malmö 1847-1863
17. Ellbo Tändsticksfabrik, Lilla Edet 1867-1895
18. Emmaboda Tändsticksfabrik 1882-1901
19. Enköpings Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1908
20. Fahlköpings Tändsticksfabrik 1847-1848
21. Fahlköpings Tändsticksfabrik, Spindelnätet 1862-1863
22. Figeholms Tändsticksfabrik 1924-1928
23. Frans Fagerströms Tändsticksfabrik, Kalmar

?-?

24. Fredriksdahls Tändsticksfabrik, Kalmar 1887-1913
25. F.0. Abergs Tändsticksfabrik, Kalmar 1859-1860
26. P.E. Kreüger & Jenning, Kalmar ?-?
27. Swedish Match Company, Kalmar 1887-1910
28. Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker, Kalmar 1913-1917
29. Gloria Westas Tändsticksfabrik, Hvetlanda 1912-1915
30. Gnesta Tändsticksfabrik 1872-1876
31. Grantorpets Tändsticksfabrik, Vestervik 1897-1923
32. Grenna-Alboga Tändsticksfabrik 1876-1880
33. Grönskara Tändsticksfabrik 1889-1897
34. Gustafsbergs Tändsticksfabrik, Kalmar 1858-1914
35. Gävle Tändsticksfabriker 1869-1878
36. Gölpha Verk & Tändsticksfabrik, Helgerum 1848-1859
37. Göteborgs Tändsticksfabrik 1860-1867
38. Lilla Edets Tändsticksfabrik (Göteborgs) ?-?
39. Wax Westa Tändsticksfabrik, Göteborg 1904-1906
40. Haganäs Tändsticksfabrik, Falun 1861-1899
41. Helmans Tändsticksfabrik,Westeras 1847-1851
42. Hudiksvalls Tändsticksfabrik 1851-1857
43. Hummels Tändsticksfabrik, Örebro 1844-1846
44. Hvetlanda Tändsticksfabrik A/B 1870-1904
45. A/B Hvetlanda Tändsticksfabrik 1907-.......
46. Ingatorps Tändsticksfabrik ?-?
47. Jordbro Tändsticksfabrik, Jönköping 1924-1928
48. Junebro Tändsticksfabrik, Jönköping 1910-1914
49. Jönköpings Tändsticksfabrik 1844-........
50. Jönköpings Westra Tändsticksfabrik 1881-1971
51. Jönköpings Östra Tändsticksfabrik (Nya) 1881-1885
52. Kalmar Tändsticksfabrik 1907-1967
53. Mönsteras Tändsticksfabrik 1892-1967
54. Mönsteras-Kalmar Tändsticksfabrik 1912-1913
55. Carlstads Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1885
56. Karlstads Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1885
57. Krokoms Tändsticksfabrik, Östersund 1869-1905
58. Landskrona Tändsticksfabrik 1845-1875
59. Lidköpings Tändsticksfabrik 1856-1866
60. Sirius Tändsticksfabrik, Lidköping 1905-1913
61. Lidköpings Norra Tändsticksfabrik 1917-1963
62. Lindahls Tändsticksfabrik, Kalmar 1858-1887
63. Linköpings Tändsticksfabrik 1857-1859
64. Linnebjörke Tändsticksfabrik 1875-1878
65. Lovers Tändsticksfabrik 1872-1876
66. Ludvigsdahls Tändsticksfabrik, Nybro 1876-1877
67. Lundenholms Tändsticksfabrik, Lane Ryr 1869-1878
68. Lövangers Tändsticksfabrik 1866-1869
69. Löfholmens Tändsticksfabrik, Stockholm 1866-1871
70. Malmros Tändsticksfabrik, Malmö 1843-1844
71. Malmö Tändsticksfabrik 1872-1874
72. Phoenix Tändsticksfabrik, Malmö 1874-1879
73. Svenska Tändsticks A/B Malmö 1882-1913
74. Marianelunds Tändsticksfabrik 1871-1884
75. Mariestads Tändsticksfabriker 1873-1893
76. Motala Tändsticksfabrik 1871-1875
77. Motala-Hälla Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1895
78. Mälaredalens Tändsticksfabrik 1906-1913
79. Nordenmalms Tändsticksfabrik, Stockholm 1845-1872
80. Norrköpings Tändsticksfabriker 1852-1855
81. Nybo Tändsticksfabrik, Christinehamn 1867-1877
82. Nybro Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1876
83. Nyköpings Tändsticksfabrik ?-?
84. Nynäshamns Tändsticksfabrik 1905-1907
85. Nässjö Tändsticksfabrik 1866-1869
86. Oskarshamns Tändsticksfabrik 1870-1881
87. Kronans Tändsticksfabrik, Oskarshamn 1887-1894
88. Prinsfors Tändsticksfabrik 1876-1878
89. Quarnö Tändsticksfrabrik 1857-1882
90. Rosendahls Tändsticksfabrik, Mönsteras 1868-1885
91. Ryssby Tändsticksfabrik 1873-1873
92. Rörshyttans Tändsticksfabrik 1859-1860
93. Sala Tändsticksfabrik 1856-1857
94. Segelbergs Tändsticksfabrik, Örebro 1847-1854
95. Skeppsgardens Tändsticksfabrik 1874-1892
96. Skövde Tändsticksfabrik 1861-1862
97. Stockholms Nya Tändsticksfabrik 1869-1888
98. Nya Tändsticksfabriken i Stockholm 1873-1888
99. Stockholms Tändsticksfabrik 1863-1865
100. Stora Tuna Tändsticksfabrik 1840-........
101. Strängnäs Tändsticksfabrik 1873-1877
102. Sulegangs Tändsticksfabrik 1867-1868
103. Sundsvall-Skjöle Tändsticksfabrik 1875-1889
104. Svärdsjö Tändsticksfabrik 1849-1853
105. Södertelje Tändsticksfabrik 1871-1908
106. Södertelje Tändsticksfabrik, Göteborg 1904-1934
107. Tabergs Tändsticksfabrik 1921-1924
108. Trollhättans Tändsticksfabrik 1869-1871
109. Tullgarns Tändsticksfabrik, Upsala 1874-1874
110. Tunaholms Tändsticksfabrik, Sundsvall 1847-????
111. Tövehults Tändsticksfabrik 1850-1869
112. Uddevalla Tändsticksfabriker 1874-1934
113. Wenersborgs Tändsticksfabrik 1848-1934
114. Westerviks Tändsticksfabrik 1858-1874
115. Westeras Tändsticksfabrik 1869-1870
116. Wexiö Tändsticksfabrik 1870-1910
117. Wisby Tändsticksfabrik 1872-1882
118. Vulcans Tändsticksfabrik, Tidaholm 1868-........
119. Ystads Tändsticksfabrik 1871-1887
120. Örnas Tändsticksfabrik, Amal 1860-1868
121. Örebro Tändsticksfabrik 1854-1892

122

Östersunds Tändsticksfabrik 1857-1864

123

Stenslunds (Stenbergs) Tändstickfabrik, Oskarshamn 1881-1887
124 Gerhard Arehns Mekaniska Verkstad, Stockholm 1883-........
125 Nya Tändsticksfabrik AG, Stockholm 1874-1888
There were still some more factories in Sweden, which were not listed here.
This list is taken from the Swedish Catalog from Arne Tjeder and I added some myself.

1) Kalmar Tändsticksfabrik (1907-1965)

P.E. Kreugner, who founded a match factory in Mönsteras in 1892, builded a new factory in Kalmar for 1906-1907. Technical designer and boss of the construction work were Torsten Kreuger. He was a man with a sense for novelties and he gave the factory a modern appearance, he equipped her with the most modern machines, and the ventilation system, which it designed, could measure with the today's.

At the beginning the factory was separately operated, but 1912 the factories in Mönsteras and Kalmar folded up to a holding, which got the name Mönsteras Kalmar match factory. This society went later than the dominating unit into the 1913 formed society combined Swedish Match Factories (28).

The factories are still in enterprise (1965) and belong to STAB. In former times the Fredriksdahl factories and their different epochs were described. If it concerns the label placing, it is by no means easier, is to describe one the epochs of the obenerwaenten society.

The labels can be divided in three departments.

1. Kalmar match factory (52), 2. Mönsteras match factory (53), 3. Mönsteras Kalmar match factory (54)

The arrangement completely to enumerate is impossible. In addition in former times a part of the labels, which would have belonged still to Mönsteras, was listed surely with Fredriksdahl.

If it concerns literature, it gives not much more than "the Swedish --" to mention. The author of the Sweden catalog has a multiplicity of different colorprints, and in one of them it states that "The is present moorland gate", which is arranged with Hvetlanda in an Kalmar advertisement.

The sales of the products of the Kalmar factory was settled by Fredrik Kreuger in London. This was employed first at the company Knoes, began its own company however later. It sold not only for the Kalmar and Mönsteras, but also for among other things. Sirius in Lidköping. It is easy to see the thing in common between certain Siriusetiketten and the Kalmaretiketten. This applies particularly to color choice and format. Special attention should be dedicated number 4, whose label has the quantity 51x60 mm, and this format occurs frequently both with Kalmar and with Siriusetiketten. The Dutch India was admits for such high and quite large boxes. See Fredriksdahls "Cathedral".

2) Annebergs Tändsticksfabrik (1866-1934)

More luck than J. Larsson had Axel Björk and A. Kullberg, who put on 1866 in the Kirchspiel Solberga a factory in the proximity by Svartan. Over this factory, which was shut down in the year 1934 the first time, a whole book could be written. History tells that the sergeant Kullberg a daughter had, who was called Anna and that it was it, after whose model the factory the name Annebergs match factory received.

However, the first labels of the factory carried the names Pilabo and it been based on the fact that the owner of the Pilabo garden, was interested in the factory director of district court Gagner. It erbot itself to become partners and its desire went 1868 into fulfilment. In the year the factory had 57 workers and produced with changing success, until 1876, when Daniel Heyman partner became, and was two years later the number of employees to 170 risen. 1885 were formed a corporation with 200,000 crowns share capital; at this time the number of the employees had exceeded the 200. 1896 were taken over the factory by chamber gentleman Fredrik Löwenhart, whose name we still many marks will meet. Löwenhart bought the first factories 1892, that was Örebro and Jönköpings Westra factories, which were current at this time. When Löwenhart took over Annebergs factory, and developed he modernized her, and the share capital rose to 450,000 crowns. The number of workers now was over 400. 1903 were received the factory into the society Jönköping Vulcan formed there.

Which concerns the labels, then are retained some from the earlier epochs, are however very rare. One the retailer of the factory, August Kullberg in Katrineholm has its name on some labels, unusually is labels, on which the name seems to "F.W. Hasselblad & Co, Göteborg". Both designation as "Ensamme Parti Försaeljare" (wordplay, labels only in very small number of items were manufactured). Labels with the text "D Heyman & Co are looked for and rarely."

The most frequent variants of the Annebergsetiketten are the motives "Snoken" ("the feeler gauge"), "Lokomotivet" and "The Lancer". Three well-known series were published from the factory. Many of the labels were published during the staff period, and then even from several other factories.

Literature: The collecting tank combination Skandia, which published the beautiful newspaper "the label and the mark". The energetic director/conductor of this combination, the well-known match collecting tank stubborn Sjöberg and director Robert Ahlin, began in the first edition 1943 to list the Annebergsetiketten; it looks, as if Ausgabe1 1945 contained the last section. There one had reached 32 different types and had illustrated 38 labels. A large advantage was that one had taken up all sizes with and for each size of prices determined at the same time. A catalog, which was put on after this sample, would be the most complete and a class for itself, but a human life is not sufficient, in order to write it. In "the label and the mark" NR. 6 of 1948 and "Allers" NR. 1943, there are 8, detailed data concerning the Annebergsfabik. In "the Swedish - -" data concerning the Annebergsfabrik are very scarce.

I can already from the outset guarantee that it is impossible, all types and variants to get, apply not only to Anneberg, but to most factories. The accessible label material of the Swedish factories is so powerful that nobody could bring a complete catalog/a complete collection.

3) Ekesjö Tändsticksfabrik (1874-1875)

Ekesjö-Marianelunds Tändstickfabrik AG founded Ekesjö Tändstickfabrik in 1874. Unfortunately it burned down in 1875 and was never rebuilded.

This label is a reproduction of the original.

 

 

4) Enköpings Tändsticksfabrik (1874-1908)

The factory was founded in 1874. It was sold to Södertälje Tändstickfabrik in 1898 and they sold it to Mälaredalens Streichholzfabrik in 1904.

5) Figeholms Tändsticksfabrik (1924-1928)

The factory opened his doors in 1924 and closed them in 1924. The labels of these factories are categorized as "rare items".

 

6) Gloria Westas AB Tändsticksfabrik (1912-1915)

 

 

The factory was founded in Hvetlanda by engineer Thomas Lärn and Johan Andersson. They closed doors in 1915.

 

7) Grantorpets Tändsticksfabrik (1897-1923)

The factory, which was opened 1897, produced only splinters at the beginning. In 1902 they begun with the production of matches. In 1915 they were taken over by the plant of the united Swedish match factories. Production was stopped 1923.
The distributor for the USA was Samuel Cupples, Wooden commodity CO. Pc. Louis, Chicago and New York.

 

 

8) Carlslunds Tändsticksfabrik in Hvetlanda (1868-1904)

The factory was founded in 1868 by W. Rohloff . It was actif till 1904.

 

 

 

9) Ellbo Tändsticksfabrik (1867-1895)

When Lilla Edets Tändstickfabrik burned down in 1867, a new factory was builded and they changed the name in Ellbo. This factory closed down in 1895.
When it comes to classify labels, it gets tough. It is hard to distinguish whether a label belongs to Ellbo or Lilla Edets (Göteborg) Tändstickfabrik. All these labels are categorized as 'rare' and are expensive.

 

10) Fahlköpings Tändsticksfabrik (1847-1848)

 

This factory was founded by Robert Bergmark in 1847. It burned down the 29th of december 1847.

Closed down officially in 1848.

 

 

 

 

 

 

11) Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker (1913-1917)

In 1913 the United Swedish Match Factories (= Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker) was founded under the supervision of Ivar Kreuger. They had factories in Kalmar, Mönsteras, Nybro, Grantorpet und Lovers :

Swedish Match Company (1887-1913)
Kalmar Tändsticksfabrik (1907-1967)
Mönsterås Tändsticksfabrik (1892-1967)
Sirius Tändsticksfabrik (1905-1913)
Södertelje Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1908)
Hvetlanda Tändsticksfabrik (1870-1904)
Svenska Tändsticks AB (1882-1913)


 12) Gnesta  Tändsticksfabrik (1872-1876)

The factory was founded by  Freiherr von Leuhausen and engineer Ramsten. In 1876 it burned down and was never rebuilded.

 

 

13) P.E. Kreüger & Jenning (?-?)

Not much known of this factory. These labels were under the category of this factory according to Uwe's site. I am not sure about this.

14) A/B Hvetlanda Tändsticksfabrik (1907-?)

This factory in Hvetlanda was founded in 1907 by Johan Andersson. This factory was still running in 1965 and therefore it belonged to STAB.

15) Junebro Tändsticksfabrik (1910-1914)

The factory began 1891 with the production of splinters. In 1910 the production of matches started. In 1914 it was taken over by the Jönköping Vulcan factory.

16)  The Swedish Match Company (1887-1910)

The first of four major joint-ventures of swedish match factories. The following factories joined to this group:

Lovers Tändsticksfabrik (1872-1876)
Ystads Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1887)
Wexiö Tändsticksfabrik (1870-1910)
Fredrikdahls Tändsticksfabrik (1887-1913)
Gustafsbergs Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1914)
Lindahls Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1887)

In 1913 it joined AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker (the third major joint-venture)..

17) Jordbro Tändsticksfabrik (1924-1928)

The Jordbro match factory in Jönköping is the last privately founded match factory of Sweden. It was founded by a group in 1924. In the same year there was another factory founded : Figeholms Tändsticksfabrik (also called the Tandstick AG Scandinavia).
 

These factories were created by the same group, and the motives repeat themselves on certain labels, e.g. "the Swedish Weapon".
One of the former large retailers was the well-known Göteborg businessman Elof Hansson. The factory closed in 1928. Nevertheless it had a quite comprehensive sales.

18) Jönköpings Tändsticksfabrik (1844- ?)

In 1844 the preparations for the factory began that would make the Swedish safety match famous in the whole world. It was Janne Lundström in Jönköping, who began with the first production of safety matches. He accounted the 28.4.1845 (the first crate of matches sold) as the birthday of the factory.
In 1846 his brother Carl became a partner. Carl was a born businessman, and he organized those sales both abroad and on the domestic market. Bryant & May in England were one of the largest customers. In 1863 Bernard Hay was appointed as Sales Distributor and became at the same time factory manager.


The brand name of the factory, JT original, is probably the label, the model for the many imitators both in Sweden and abroad. The factory is still in enterprise and belongs together with the Vulcan match factory in Tidaholn to the group of  STAB: detailed description in G. Cederhioelds Cederhioelds-E.v. Protecting braids "Svenska Tändsticksindustriens Historia" (dt. the history of the Swedish match industry). In addition Swante Johansson's "Labels of the old Jönköping Factory 1845-1860".
Concerning the earliest labels, there is hardly a reason to doubt the classification of Swante Johansson (in the catalog). Quite many of the old labels remained till today. Until 1860 Swante Johanssons' list can be followed. After 1860 the remaining "packing labels" are described : type red oval and J.T.'s original label. This is followed by a list of the usual "motives", and in the end the "series" came. After the list of the "series" comes a list with "signs", which can be tracked to STAB, and these labels could have been manufactured in any one of the factories that belonged to the Jönköping & Vulcan Match Corporation.
Every phillumenist knows that STAB sends each year gifts. These contain large boxes with varying and appealing  motives. In the end of his section (in the catalog) there are such a few examples. On the same chapter there are a number of announcements, price lists and other curiosities wich were taken up.

19) Jönköpings Westra Tändsticksfabrik (1881-1971)

It was an engineer with the name of C.F. Wennberg, who founded the factory at the beginning of 1881. The exportsales was very good organized from the start. Jacob Elliot & Co. in Göteborg had the exclusive right on sales of the factory products, and Trummer & Co with seats in Hamburg and London took care of the entire export. Wennberg was an efficient man, who had the luck to find well-informed aids and he created a good start and a nice flow of products (quicker than any other factory).

If it concerned "Registered Trademarks", Hay, the boss of Jönköpings Tändstickfabrik, and Wennberg were constantly in conflict. Hay triumphed in this controversy, but it was Wennberg, who won on the export market. Jönköpings Westra main brand "Tre Stjärnor" or the English version "Three Stars" conquered most markets due to its good quality.

In May 1889 a corporation was formed, and Oscar Roemke became the director. The head office was shifted to Göteborg. When Hay Elliot died in July 1892, the boss of Trummer & Co, the chamber gentleman Fredrik Löwenadler, took over the stock majority. It was Löwenadler, who was the driving strength behind the formation of Jönköpings & Vulcans Match AG.

For most phillumenists the labels of  J.W.T. are very common. This is not quite true, there are original and rare labels of  J.W.T. : those of the original factory of  J.W.T. All "Tre Stjärnor", which was not described with Anneberg or with other factories, is taken up with J.W.T.

 20) Mönsteras Tändsticksfabrik (1892-1967)

The factory was founded in  1892 by Ernst & Fredrik Emil Kreuger (both had lived in Kalmar). They started building the factory in May 1892. It was a two-floor building with a length of  40 meters and a width of 12 meters.

In the beginning the factory had 61 workers, but ten years later their number had risen to 110. The production value that time amounted to 193,000 crowns. The factory manufactured both paraffin and safety matches, which were sold by Fredrik Kreuger mainly to England and India. Fredrik Kreuger lived in England by that time.

There are a number of labels with the factory name and some others, which have the text "Made at Mönsteras Factory Sweden". But with the latter you have to be carefull because there was a match factory in Mönsteras in 1869 allready. There are labels with the text "Mönsteras Tändsticksfabrik", you can find these also back in the labels of Rosendahls Tändsticksfabrik, so be carefull with classifying these.

Literature in more detail about the Mönsteras factory is not available.
In 1967 the fatory closed their doors because they couldn't compete with the biggest match company of Sweden.

21) Mönsteras-Kalmar Tändsticksfabrik (1912-1913)

It was 1912, when the two factories united to a holding. Actually only the first step of this joint-venture developed, because in the year after, thus 1913,  it was joined in a bigger holding (AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker) and later in another holding created under the direction of Ivar Kreuger : the Svenska Tändsticks AktieBolaget (STAB).

The fact that it became more difficult to keep after track of the labels after the unification of these factories is very clear for all phillumenists. All labels were used by all factories, show up with all desirable probability. If one had the opportunity, to examine the label-books of another factory, then he copied this label for his own factory. AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker lasted only four years. It united in 1917 to the Svenska Taendsticks AktieBolaget (also Swedish match - AG), STAB. It is naturally clear that most of the described labels, which had been registered once for a certain factory were used later by the STAB.

Finally I considered it important in this connection to take up a photo of our large match king IVAR KREUGER with without which it would be questionable whether there would be a STAB today.

22) Jönköpings Östra (Nya) Tändsticksfabrik  (1881-1885)

The rumor of large profits enticed humans always to invest money. When the failures in the Swedish match industry were overcome and the profits began to adjust itself, there were many, which wanted to have "a piece of the cake".

New factories shot like mushrooms from the soil, most disappeared however quite fast again. The factory, toward which all views were directed, was the Jönköping match factory. The factory divided 150% on the shares out, and who did not want such profit sharings ?

The man, who did it, was a building master named Carlsson. At his home in Jönköping he probably spoke to himself in this way: "A factory in Jönköping has matches of good quality and the whole world admits this. If I build a factory in Jönköping, and give it a similar name, I can sell as much as the other factory".

In the summer 1880 Carlsson left the company Bolander & Co. and sended folders to English businessmen, who were asked themselves to draw shares for the new enterprise. In Jönköping it was a businessman G. Grapengiesser, who procured the applications for shares.

The factory was opened 1881, but the name Jönköpings New Match Factory was not approved by its royal majesty, but had to be changed in  Jönköpings Eastern Match Factory. Nevertheless for Carlsson it didn't make any difference, he would still use name "Nya" (new one) and he manufactured labels, which were very similar to the J.T. original.

However, the enterprise failed and became insolvent. Hay, the boss of the Jönköpings Westra Tändsticksfabrik, rubbed his hands and bought up the factory, in order to avoid a further competitor.

There are a lot of really beautiful labels of Jönköpings Eastern Factories. Despite everything the factory operated a quite comprehensive export. Most of the labels are 'rare', many are 'very rare' and the prices stand in good relationship. Beside the labels it was retained much singular material, among other things: price lists.

23) Lidköpings Tändsticksfabrik (1856-1866)

 

 

Other factories in Lidköping

A cold winter in 1920, workers from Sirius Tändstickfabrik in Lidköping.

24) Lidköpings Norra Tändsticksfabrik (1917-1963)

This factory was built in 1917 by the united Swedish match factories, thus in the same year, in which Svenska Tändsticks Aktiebolaget (STAB) was founded. It is to an utopia to determine which labels were published by this factory. One can be certain, of certain types, which had been published by the old Lidköpingsfabrik, a new design was given here. An example is "The Jockey".

25) Sirius Tändstickfabrik (1905-1913)

When 1904 Lidköpings match factory was closed, more than 300 workers became unemployed. This was a tragedy at the time. Director Linus Westberg had compassion with the unemployed persons and their families. He won several personalities for the idea, leading from Lidköpings to bring a new match factory into being. It had success with its efforts, and the 3th of september 1905 the Sirius match factory started production in a building of  the enterprise. In 1913 it got joined in a group : AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker.

The rise of the AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker is to be owed mostly to him. He became their chairman of the board. When it later joined in STAB in 1917, he became an executive committee member.

Sirius published a multiplicity of colorful and beautiful labels and today many of them are categorized as 'rare'. In the end of this part a number of labels with was taken up, which of the 1917 of the STAFF was published built factory.

Sirius used also a part of the old Lidköpings labels and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish them. There are a lot of similarities between the labels of the Sirius and the Kalmarfabrik, which is only natural, since these two belonged to the same holding.

26) Lindahls Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1887)

The factory located in Kalmar was founded by  J.F. Lindahl in 1858. It growed slowly but steady and in 1864 it allready had 31 workers. In 1872 they had a productionrate of 100 000 Kr. and by then had 190 workers.

The labels of these factory are categorized as 'rare' if you don't take into acccount the ones with J.T.'s originals.

In November 1887 the Swedish Match Company bought the factory for 70 000 Kr. In 1893 the factory burned down and was never rebuilded.

27) Lundenholms Tändstickfabrik (1869-1878)

J.F. Lundström founded the factory in 1869 in Lane Ryr. They closed doors in 1878.

Original labels are categorized as 'very rare' but there are a few re-prints available.

 

 

28) Malmö Tändstickfabrik (1872-1874)

W.M. Hasselquist created in 1862 a factory in Malmö, the remaining data of the factory is unknown. The Malmö Match factory was created in 1872 by J.D. Andersson. In 1874 this factory was sold to the Tändsticksfabriks Aktiebolaget Phoenix (= Phoenix Tändstickfabrik). The production in this fatory was stopped in 1879.

There is a number of labels with the text "Malmö Tändstickfabrik", the motive is a candle. These labels were manufactured by German factories. In 1882 a new holding was formed with the name Svenska Tändsticks A/B in Malmö. They took over the factories of the Phoenix AG. You can see it from the packing labels. The holding was taken over 1913 by "AB Förenade Svenska Tändsticksfabriker" and closed the factory.

In the album that was re-published by the Swedish General Export Union 1902, there are a number of rare Malmö labels. A part occurs also as reprint. The labels in the catalog are described in the order of expenditure, and are divided into two sections.

29) Phoenix Tändstickfabrik (1874-1879)

For the history of this factory : see above.

 

30) Svenska Tändsticks A/B in Malmö (1882-1913)

For the history of this factory : see above.

31) Marianelunds Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1884)

Ekesjö-Marianelunds Tändstickfabrik was founded in december 1871.

In 1879 they filed for bankruptcy. They were taken over by a group of businessman (Aschau, A. Petri and Nyberg).

Untill 1881 they produced matches. After 1881 they produced only matchboxes. In 1884 the factory closed down.

 

32) Mariestads Tändsticksfabriker (1873-1893)

The factory was founded in 1873 by S.A. Olsson.

In 1874 they were taken over by a group. The owners of the group were : L.M. Altin, C.O. Wessen, V. Lundquist and T. Walenkampf.

They stopped production between 1878 and 1882. After 1882 they started production again untill 1893 when they closed down.

33) Motala Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1875)

Motala Tändsticksfabrik was founded in 1871.

In 1875 it burned down completely.

34) Motala-Hälla Tändsticksfabrik (1874-1895)

Motala Tändsticksfabrik burned  down in 1875, but a year ealier in 1874 the owners V.D. Reuterskjöld and C.V. Prestetoff-Morath founded a new factory, that had a similar name. In 1889 director Holmberg leased the factory. In 1895 they closed down the factory.

The labels are mainly the same as the Motala Tändsticksfabrik, but a few new ones were added.

35) Mälaredalens Tändsticksfabrik (1906-1913)

It is very difficult to find info on this factory.

A reorganization to a Corporation was made in 1906. Director Eric Holmberg, to which the Södertälje Match Factory belonged, was one of the partners. The Enköpingsfabrik belonging to its property was sold the Mälaredalens Match Factory AG. The leading director was P.J. Nilsson.

When in 1913 the United Swedish Match Factories was formed, the factory closed down.

36) Norrköpings Tändsticksfabriker (1852-1855)

The first match factory in Norrköping was founded in 1852 by J.S. Svensson. The factory closed in 1855. At this time it had 15 workers and a production value of 4300 Rdr. At the end of the sixties of the 19th century director Erich Müller began to manufacture phosphorus matches in the old factory.

In 1870 a new corporation was formed for the production of matches, which had the name Norrköpings Match Factory. The factory, which had 160 workers, had a shining start and the production value rose until 1876, afterwards it sank slowly, but surely again, and in 1888 it had to be shut down.

Do not believe they that all labels with cocks, like those on the Norrköpings Match Factory's were manufactured before 1888. It was also used later by other manufacturers.

37) Nybro Tändsticksfabrik (1874-1876)

 

The first match factory in Nybro was already founded around 1860 by Johannes Pettersson. Very little is known about this factory. We don't know how long it produced matches and we don't even know if there are labels of the factory.

 

A new factory was opened to 1874 by the pharmacist Carl G. Fohlin. In 1881 it was converted into a corporation. A further reorganization took place 1901, than the enterprise in Nybro Safety Match Factory was renamed. The factory was bought up in 1913 by the United Swedish Match Factories. At the same time they closed down the factory.

There are a number of Nybrö labels, which were printed by several other factories, so it is difficult to classify them.

38) Oskarshamns Tändsticksfabrik (1870-1881)

The factory Oskarshamns Tändsticksfabrik AB was founded in 1870 by Gustaf Tillberg, Johan Fredrik Lindgren, E. A. Maurin and G. Friedenfelt. In 1871 they had 51 workers and a capital of 17589 Rdr (="riksdaler"). In 1881 they had 45 workers and a capital of  91500 Kr. It was shut down in 1881.

In the same year a new factory with the name Stenbergs (Stenslunds) match factory was opened. It was sold to doctor Axel Albert von Stapelmohr (from Mora) in 1887 who changed the name in Kronan Match Factory. The factory was shut down 1894. Japanese imitations show that the factory exported to countries far away. Around the type "J.T. Original" there were a lot of  controversies with the factory in Jönköping.

39) Rosendahls Tändsticksfabrik (1868-1885)

In connection with the description of the Kalmar Match Factory also the Mönsteras Factory by E. and F. Kreuger 1892 was described, what is based on the fact that both factories were folded up to a society.

The first factory in Mönsteras was founded in 1868 by the pharmacist G. Frykman. In February 1876 the factorie was bought by A.M. Lindquist. It was shut down 1885. For those who are interested in the history of the factory, there is a lot of information in Johan Acksell's Chronicle Book. An excerpt from this book was printed on the 18th of February 1882 in the Mönsteras Newspaper. The ending of the article goes like this :  It was the sailor Vesterberg from Krakerum in Möntseras, who stayed in one of China's bigger cities for a long time. One evening he stepped into a pub, where he saw a matchbox of Pearls Tändstickor and after carefully exmining the box he discovered the name "A.M. Lindqvist Mönsteras". Yes,  those days it used to be that print, today you can only find the labels with "Lindqvist".

40) Stockholms Tändsticksfabrik (1863-1865)

The factory was founded in 1863 by J.W. Hjerpe. It's adress was Vollmar Yxkullsgatan 22. Hjerpe got a patent on 18 July 1863 on a match, which had both the wood and the rubbing surface perfectly phosphorus-free. It shut down in 1865. The factory was left to Wallin & Sundström in 1869 and they changed the name into Stockholms Nya Tändsticksfabrik. In 1873 they filed for bankruptcy, but in 1874 Wallin & Sundström founded a new society, the New Match Factory AG (=Nya Tändsticksfabrik AG), which lay in the Fleminggatan.

Nya Tändsticksfabriken i Stockholm was founded in 1873 by director A.T. Edlund. This factory was taken over in 1888 by the New Match Factory AG, with which the circle closed.

Labels of all of these factories are described in a catalog section, whereby it becomes possible to sort them according to age.

On 20 December 1877 the commercial chemist accomplished the proof that in Stockholm that the Stockholms Nya Tändstickfabrik manufactured matches. There are three different certificates, one in Swedish and the two different in Swedish, German and English. These certificates are black printed on yellow label paper. The attention is to be directed toward it that in this certificate "from Stockholm New Match Factory AG" is written, and on the labels however only "New Match Factory".

41) Gerhard Arehns Mekaniska Verkstad (1883-?)


Gerhard Arehn was of  great importance for the Swedish Match industry. He started working in the New Match Factory AG and designed among other things labeling machines. On 1 October 1883 Gerhard Arehn and his father opened a mechanical workshop in Stockholm. In 1891 manufactured it the first filling machine. A new factory was inaugurated 1898, and later this factory had a few years the exclusive right on the production of match machines.
 

There are many labels from Arehns, and it must have been a big joy for the boys of that time, who had bags full of  labels printed in that factory. Unfortunately most of these labels disappeared, and the boys are older gentlemen today.


Advertisement in a German Matchstick Magazine (december 1927) for Gerhard Arehn's Workshop

42) Sundsvall-Skjöle Tändsticksfabrik (1875-1889)

 

It is difficult to find more facts about this factory who was founded in 1875. We know that there were 11 workers in 1881 and they stopped production in 1889.

 

43) Södertelje Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1908)

You can write a complete book about this factory. The following is a short description about the factory.

The factory was founded in 1871 by Eric Holmberg. He was an autodidact, had a lot of intrest in industry and was very optimistic. He decided to open a match factory without having any money and he knew very little about matches. He had a good friend, D.J. Ekberg, who was his right hand. The factory was established and made in the first year a loss of 8000 crowns. The factory became more competitive, Holmberg managed to  manufacture good matches and with the support of the artist Elis Berg also the labels catched on.


The Södertelje labels are very beautiful and present in relatively large quantities. Flower and Boat motives dominate the label collection.

In 1889 Holmberg bought the Motala-Hälla Match Factory and 1898 the Enköpingsfabrik. He kept good relationships with the company Alsing in London, and the orders kept coming in large quantities. The production of his own factories were not sufficient, and he passed orders on to many other factories. There is thus a reason to accept that many labels, which were found in the books of different factories are actually there "fabricated". Something had to be done in order to satisfy the demand for the popular matches, and the result in 1904 was an ultramodern factory in Göteborg (=Södertelje Tändsticksfabrik, Göteborg 1904-1934). In 1908 the factory in Södertelje closed and the Enköpingsfabrik was sold to the Mälaren Match Factory. The Motala-Hälla Match Factory closed allready in 1895. A strange fact is that Holmberg opened a factory in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1898. In "the Swedish One" he gives a number of data concerning the factory in Södertelje, and Gustaf Rothell gathered a quantity of data, unfortunately not much is published.

Everyone knows that the Södertelje labels were manufactured by several factories, a large part of the Sirius assigned labels belonged likewise to Södertelje. You can divide the labels into two or four sections. Södertelje, the Göteborger branch, the United Swedish ones and the STAB period. I advise to put them in the same category and maybe uture collectors can divide them as they like. The most popular brands "The Red Rose" and "The Ship" are still used in labels.

The motive "The Ship" is an old and well-known label. It defied all storms and is a very common label. It was sold in England by Alsing & Co. A label, carries the text "Read This "! " A handsome present for nothing. Collect the wrappers of this packet and send them on the first of May to Alsing & Co. Ld 110 Cannon St E.C. who will award the following prizes: To the three persons who send the greatest number of wrappers will be given 3 first class " Arab " Bicycles " . A similar label from 1 July 1914 shows a silver clock.

Perhaps there was a similar game in Sweden in the twenties, because at this time it was known that the one who collected the first 100 labels could win a bicycle. The result was that youngsters started to collect labels.

44) Uddevalla Tändstciksfabriker (1874-1934)

There were two match factories in Uddevalla. There are no available data, when the first one was built. It is common knowledge that it  was founded by a man with the name Edward Olsson, and that it closed in 1879.

A J.T. Original-type label with shields at the sides probably originates from this factory.

The other factory was founded in 1874 by the shipowner Adolf P. Zachau. A part of the workers of the first factory were hired for this factory. In the first year the number of employees was about 54. The next year it raised to 180, thus a very fast development. For a long time Zachau operated the factory under his own name, and in 1896 it was registered as a corporation. Löwenadler received the right to draw shares for 150,000 crowns to participate on the condition, that he didn't work there and that he did not interfere with the business. Adolf Zachau withdrew himself in 1899 from the business life, and his son Arthur took over. Arthur Zachau was a very industrious and foreseeing man. Under his leadership the factory became one of the most important factories of the country. He was very strict concerning quality and never released a box of matches for sale, if it even had a little damage. He undertook frequently journeys abroad, and there he as a good salesman, he conquered many markets.

To most common labels were "The Swallow" and "The Ant". The agent of the company Attema in Amsterdam established "The swallow" as "De Zwaluw" on the Dutch market and "The Ant" on the market of Java. In 1967 these were still sold in Holland.

In 1900 the number of workers reached 576. An important industrial company at the time. Like so many other factories also Uddevalla was affected by the large corporations, and Arthur Zachau played an active role with the formation of Jönköping-Vulcan, with which he was member of the board. He supported also actively the formation of STAB. It had a hard impact for Uddevalla, when the factory was shut down in 1938 (or 1934?).

There is a large selection of material of the Uddevalla Factory, and on many labels there are exact registration data. It helped to track labels when an agent had sent a suggestion to the company. Some label drafts were illustrated just like handdrawn originals. A number of labels was manufactured for the Latin American market, most of them were arranged in a different chapter in the catalog.

The Uddevalla Factory published many series. At the best well-known is the 70-Serien. It is not possibly to tell what the exact number of series is, since data concerning it are unfortunately missing. Several series were printed (just like the Lidköpings series) in Germany. The number of different labels of the factory including all sizes amounts to approx. 4000.

In the match factory of Uddevalla a large number of different labels for South America was printed. Some of them were already described, some different with typical motives - or with special text in this section were taken up. Many of these marks are from 1880-1890, and some of them are categorized as 'rare'. Most occur in several variants. There are e.g. "Gato Preto" in three different editions. The largest part of these labels is printed in black on yellow.

It is always a problem to list series. From the Swedish factories Uddevalla has, without doubt, published the most series. Most of the Uddevalla series miss their text, and this means that the labels functioned as back-labels, as we already mentioned with the Lidköpings Factory. The only series of the Uddevalla factory that is complete, is the so-called 70-Serie.

45) Wenersborgs Tändsticksfabrik (1848-1934)

When Fahlköpings Match Factory, was opened in 1847 by Robert Bergmark, and burned down the same year, it was shut down and moved to Wenersborg in 1848. Also the Örnas Factory in Amal belonged to Bergmark. In 1861 the factory was taken over by A.O. Andersson, a person whose name is on many of the factory labels. Later the factory was reshuffled into a corporation and got the name Wenersborgs Match Factory AG. Bergmark was at the beginning a serious competitor for the Jönköpings Match Factory and its name appears frequently in the correspondence between the Jönköpings Match Factory and their customers. In the first fases of the factory however the quality of Bergmarks matches was not from a higher class, and that it moderated probably in a certain measure the competition, for which  Jönköpings Match Factory  was fearing.

Concerning the labels from Wenersborg, the relationship is similar with most other factories. A part of the labels is made for the factury itself and were only printed there. The remaining labels were used by several factories. Westerviks Match Factory and also Lidköpings Match Factory used frequently the same signs as the Wenersborg Match Factory. A part of the labels, which under Lidköping were described, are also described for Wenersborg and some of the labels, which are described under Wenersborg, were also used by Westervik. The factory books don't give exact information. However, a number of factory labels are original and it is difficult to incorporate these in your collection. These are categorized as 'very rare' and they are more expensive than the others.

Some the labels of the factory come in different variants, primarily the types "Light Ship", "Mazeppa", "Search Light", "The Three Monkeys" and "The Three Lions".

46) Westerviks Tändsticksfabrik (1858-1874)

The first match factory based in Westervik was founded in 1858 by Captain Landström. Prospective buyers opened a new factory at this site in 1874.

The new factory stopped the production from 1878-1880. In 1893 a fire broke out and the production stopped for almost the entire year 1893. In 1898 it was bought by Fredik Löwenadler, a well-known name in the match industry. The factory was incorporated into the Jönköping Vulcan Match AG in 1903.

Concerning the labels: there are a few old and interesting labels, mostly motives, which were used by the factory, published in a multiplicity of different types and sizes. The types, which were not manufactured particularly for the Westervikfabrik, are used by many factories. Also many motives from Annebergs and Jönköpings Westra Match Factories were used.

47) Wexiö Tändsticksfabrik (1870-1910)


At the left a sketch of the factory in 1875. The right one was made in 1880.

Wexiö-labels are somehow special for collectors. They are beautiful, come in different motives and in not so many variants.

With the Wexiö Factory, it is as with most factories, it ran among several owners and the labels should therefore be categorized in eras. Unfortunately I regard this as impossible. It is to be stated that the first factory was founded in 1870 by Schander and Södergren.

At the beginning the factory employed 84 workers and  after five years this number had risen to 157. Like all other Swedish match factories the Wexiö Factory had an important export, and it is not unusual that in the exchange with far countries original labels from Wexiö can emerge.

In 1889 the Wexiö Factory was bought by E.C. Warren from London and thereby incorporated in  The Swedish Match Company. This is the reason why labels under Swedish Match Company can also be found in Wexiö Factory's labels.

48) Wisby Tändsticksfabrik (1872-1882)

The fact that there once was a match factory on the island of Gotland, knows each collector. But that there were two, can be a new fact to many collectors. The first factory, which had the name Wisby Match Factory, was located in Eskelhem at the highway, which runs today through Mästerby. That the factory carried the name Wisby was based on the fact that this was the nearest post office.

G.F. Rydström was the man, who operated the handicraft-moderate production of matches. He began with it at the beginning of of 1870, and its products were only sold on Gotland. Production ran only a short time, and collectors who are interested in this factory can find information in more detail in "The Label and The Brand", Issue nr.1 of 1944. On 27 October 1871 there was a public call for the application for shares of a planned match factory published in "Gotlands Stuff". The call was signed by the buyers C.H. Wallér, C. Procopée, C.J. Westerberg, J.L. Kahlquist and Carl L Ekman. The first society meeting took place on 23 January 1872. Procopée, Kahlquist and Ekman were selected. It is very interesting to study the further fate of the factory. They counted naturally on the fact to earn that large amount of money, like Jönköping and Vulcan at the time. They found a market in Germany and even made an attempt in the USA. They never earned large profits, and the economy became even worse, and in 1881 the debts were over 100,000 crowns. The holding saw itself forced to file for bankruptcy on the 15th of April 1882.

There are not many different labels of Wisby Match Factory. In "The Label and The Brand" they write about seven different exclusive Eskelhems labels. There are more of these labels but they are categorized as 'very rare'.

49) Vulcans Tändsticksfabrik (1868-....)

There was a time around the turn of the century, when Vulcan in Tidaholm was the largest match factory of the world. Later it was overhauled by some foreign factories, but it can still be ranked among the largest of the match industry.

If you expect the sight of an enormous factory complex, when you arrive in the small city of Tidan, you will be disappointed. The plant, lies to a large extent hidden behind a low wall and is limited to the other side by water. It looks little impressive. You can hardly see a roof-tile or a chimney. Repeated fires and the reconstructions flattened the building.

It was in 1868 as baron Hans von Essen decided to found a match factory on that place. He selected Charles Bratt from Göteborg as his partner, because he had good business relations. Bratt searched for the money to do the start-up. Director of the factory became von Essen's son-in-law G.H. Kylberg, who was just as eager as its father-in-law. None of them had a notion of the production of matches, and the city had almost no relationship to the external world.

The factory got a starting capital of 45.000 crowns and the first factory building was finished in 1868. Directly after admission of production a fire broke out, and the factory burned down to the foundation walls. They gathered fresh money and started up from the beginning. In January 1871 a new factory was finished and the capital amounted to 67,000 crowns. In order to bring the production in course, they were forced to procure loans and credits. The books of 1871 show a loss of 107.632 crowns. It was shown that director Kylberg misunderstood his task completely and strove to change the religious ethics of the personnel instead of being busy with the production of matches. Over the entrances and to the walls of the cafeteria he had let paint words from the Bible, and if, which often occurred, a traveler prediger came to Tidaholm, the entire factory was closed and they had to listen to him.

Before new capital was invested a discussion took place and Kylberg had to resign. A new board was selected and they moved the administration to Göteborg. The fact that the Tidaholm Factory survived these heavy first years can be attributed to the patience of the share owners and their genuine faith in the future. They argued that the Jönköping Factory had large profits, thus why should Vulcan not do the same? All they needed was an efficient leader, and so they began looking for one. In 1872 they employed George Murray as office manager and starting from 1875 as a leading director. As his assistant Murray hired a very efficient man : Hans Gustafsson. He was a good supervisor and a teamleader, and concerning security also a skillful chemist. Hans Gustafsson was employed in 1872 as a teamleader and became director of the enterprise in 1874. He held this position up to his death 1905.

The reason for the fact that Vulcans got the best reputation on the world market, was the English teamleader Charles George Grimes. In 1879 he had come from Lilla Edet (Ellbo) to Tidaholm. He improved the so-called "Storm-Flaming Lights", so that alone these guaranteed good earnings/services for the enterprise. The sales of the patent on these matches to the French match monopoly did not bring less than 40,000 fr. You can see the value, that Grimes gave to the factory, in the fact that he received an annual wage from 12.000 crowns. At this time a worker of the factory earned 6,90 crowns in the week for an eleven-hour working day.

It can be interesting to know, how much the share owners received for their investment. In the course of the years 13.014.000 crowns were divided. That corresponds to a regular profit of 54 % of the share capital in 46 years . In addition, there were 2.000.000 crowns in bonus shares and 1.600.000 crowns in profits, together around 16.614.000 crown for every 1000 crown invested.

Vulcan published a multiplicity of different labels, and it might be very difficult to get all variants. The "Globe" and the "Vulcan" were the prominent marks, but many other beautifully drawn labels sold well. Although the Vulcan labels are regarded as frequent, there is a large amount of them categorized as 'medium rare', some of them are 'rare' and off course a few of them are 'very rare' to 'unique'. A large part of these recordings originates from "The History of the Swedish Match Industry" where interested collectors can find many more interesting recordings of this factory.

I regard it as entitled to take up photos of the men that made this possible. Grimes is regarded as a "father" of the older original labels. All know the beautiful labels with the cat in the crate and the barking dog before it. It is told that Grimes had the idea to create such a label, when he made one morning his round around the factory with his faithful Terrier. His dog came in conflict with one of the innumerable cats, that were living around the factory, whereby this scene took place, which is shown on the label.

It was common knowledge that the company Bryant & May had the exclusive sales right for the Jönköpings matches in England. Kylberg had already shipped a number of crates to England in 1870. But he had not selected the correct matches. In 1873 the executive committee decided that Murray should make a business trip to England. He had luck and accomplished to have a contract with Bryant & May for the sales of the entire phosphorus wood production of the factory. Even the Örebro Factory was sold to Bryant & May (with the lion motive). You can not prove it, but you can draw a conclusion that the tiger on the three cardboard labels of Bryant & Mays' was their own brand. That's why these labels could have also been manufactured in Jönköping or Örebro. Take notice that it was Litografiska in Norrköping, who printed the labels.

 

50) Ystads Tändsticksfabrik (1871-1887)

Ystads match factory was founded in 1871 by B.C.W. Pettersson. In 1874 a corporation was formed. The number of workers at that time was 54 and the production value amounted to 100,000 Rdr. Pettersson, who was the founder of the Swedish Match Company, transferred the Ystad Factory in 1887 to the holding in exchange for shares. Pettersson became a managing director of the Swedish Match Company. Production in the Ystadsfabrik was stopped 1899. There are quite many labels of this factory, most with the text "Sydsvenska Tändsticksfabriken" (South Swedish Match Factory). Most of the labels are precious and categorized as 'rare'.

51) Örebro Tändsticksfabrik (1854-1892)

The first match factory in Örebro was founded in 1844 by A.W. Hummel. The factory was registered as Hummels Match Factory. In 1847 a new factory was founded. The man behind this factory was called P.A. Segelberg. The factory lay in Norra Rynninge, however in 1854 they moved to Örebro.

The Jönköping Factory had a new and irritating competitor. Segelberg's name was written in many letters of the Jönköpings factory and it was stated that he solds his matches very cheap. Segelberg was one of the first, if not the first, that made matchboxes of wood. These wood boxes had a good market, among other countries, especially in Norway. The fact that Segelberg's matches were good  is proven by the fact that he was allowed to manufacture a large number of matches for export to England under the license of the Jönköping Factory.

The labels on these boxes were those of the Jönköping Factory. Judging on the text on the labels of the Örebro factory, Bryant & May in London were one of their largest customers. Segelberg sold the factory 1866 to the wholesale dealer Robert Thegerström. Thegerström led the factory until 1884, when he sold the factory to Otto Trummer in London. Trummer had bought the factory for Bryant & May. The factory was the bought by Jac. Elliot & Co. in Göteborg. In 1892 it was bought by Fredrik Löwenadler. The factory was closed that year and all the useful machines and the inventory were brought to Jönköpings Westra Match Factory, which belonged to Löwenadler.

Many labels with the text "Örebro" were manufactured by Jönköping Westra Tändsticksfabrik.

 

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