The Miocene stratigraphy of Belgium

Miocene stratigraphy in Belgium 
The classical nomenclature on the Miocene stratigraphy of Belgium has been made up by De Meuter & Laga (1976).

It is divided into the following units:

:: The Edegem, Kiel, Antwerpen and Deurne Members are present in the Antwerp area.

:: The Zonderschot, Genk, Houthalen and Dessel sands are found more to the east, in the Campine area and Limburg.

However, after the publication of this stratigraphy, new units have been found, which have to be placed into this scheme :
The Breda Formation is found only in a boring near the Dutch border, the other deposits have been found in the Antwerp area or to the east, in the Campine area.


All these Miocene stratigraphic units have a rather uniform lithological outlook. They consist of black to greenish gray sands or claeyey sands with a large glauconite content, except the Heterocetus Sand and sandstone, Genk and Dessel sand, which have another color and are less glauconitic.
Louwye (2000), Louwye et al. (1999,2000) studied dinoflagellate cysts of the classic stratigraphic units and succeeded in placing them in the international time scale. It appear that nearly the whole Miocene is present, but not in a continuous section, only as short intervals. Furthermore, the different Miocene Sands seem to be not synchronous in their whole range.
The Antwerp and Zonderschot Sand Members are lateral equivalents.
The Belgian Miocene Sand Members in the international stratigraphic scale, with their approximate absolute age.
  New faunistic and stratigraphic observations were presented by Marquet (1997, 1980, 1991, 1997, 1998), Marquet et al. (2002) and by Bosserlaers et al. (2004)

Literature on the Miocene fauna and stratigraphy

Bosselaers, M., Herman, J., Hoedemakers, K., Lambert, O., Marquet, R. & Wouters, K., 2004. Geology and palaeontology of a temporary exposure of the Late Miocene Deurne Sand Member in Antwerpen (N. Belgium). Geologica Belgica 7/1-2: 27-39.
Glibert, M., 1945. Faune malacologique du Miocène de la Belgique. I Pélécypodes. Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Mémoire Nr 103
Glibert, M., 1952. Faune malacologique du Miocène de la Belgique. II Gastropodes. Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Mémoire Nr 121
Glibert, M., 1954. Pleurotomes du Miocène de la Belgique et du bassin de la Loire. Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Mémoire Nr 129
Louwye, S, 2000. Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs from the Miocene Zonderschot Sands, northern Belgium: stratigraphic significance and correlation with contiguous areas. Geologica Belgica 3/1-2: 55-65.
Louwye, S, De Coninck, J. & Verniers, J. 2000. Shallow marine Lower and Middle Miocene deposits at the southern margin of the North Sea Basin (northern Belgium): dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy and depositional history. Geological Magazine 137 (4): 381-394.
Louwye, S, De Coninck, J. & Verniers, J. 2000. Dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy and depositional history of Miocene and Lower Pliocene formations in northern Belgium (southern North Sea Basin). Geologie en Mijnbouw 78: 31-46.
Marquet, R. 1980. De stratigrafie van Neogene afzettingen in een bouwput voor een waterreservoir te Broechem (prov. Antwerpen, België). Mededelingen van de Wergroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie, 17/2: 57-64.
Marquet, R. 1991. Recent temporary exposures of the Antwerpen Sands in the Antwerp City area: stratigraphy and fauna. Contributions to Tertiary and Quaternary Geology, 28/1: 9-12.
Vandenberghe, N., Laga, P., Louwye, S., Vanhoorne, R., Marquet, R., De Meuter, K., Wouters, K. & Hagemann, H.W. 2005. Stratigraphic interpretation of the Neogene marine - continental record in the Maaseik well (49W0220) in the Roer valley Graben, NE Belgium. Memoirs of the geological survey of Belgium N. 52 2005