BONE STUDIES


CRABTREE, P.J.

Crabtree P.J. 1990. Zooarchaeology and complex societies: some uses of faunal analysis for th study of trade, social status and ethnicity. In: M.B. Schiffer (ed) Archaeological Method and Theory 2. New York. 155-204.

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DRIVER, Jonathan C.

Driver, J. C. 2004. Food, status and formation processes: a case study from medieval England. In: S. J. O'Day, W. Van Neer and A. Ervynck (ed) Behaviour behind Bones. The Zooarchaeology of Ritual, Religion, Status and Identity. Oxford: Oxbow. 244-251.

Zooarchaeological studies of social differentiation typically examine the composition of assemblages, and link variation in assemblage composition to social status or ethnicity. Faunal assemblages excavated from a single medieval property in Southampton (U.K.) are quite variable in species composition. The context of the assemblages suggests that such variability was not caused by differences in the social status of the people who deposited the assemblages. Instead, it appears that there were changes in the preparation, consumption and disposal of food from earlier to later medieval periods. As a result, earlier medieval assemblages from different contexts tend to be quite homogenous, whereas later medieval assemblages from different contexts on the same property are heterogenous.

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ERVYNCK, Anton et al.

Ervynck, A., W. Van Neer, H. Hüster-Plogmann and J. Schibler. 2003. Beyond affluence: the zooarchaeology of luxury. In: World Archaeology 34. 428-441.

This paper represents an attempt to define criteria that will help to identify luxury foods within zooarchaeological assemblages.

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GAUTIER Achilles

Gautier, A. 1987. Taphonomic groups: how and why? In: Archaeozoologia 1. 47-52.

In this paper, the concept of taphonomic groups is defined. The establishment, use and possible significance of such groups in archaeolozoology is discussed.

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GILBERT, Allan S. and SINGER, Burton H.

Gilbert, A.S. and B.H. Singer. 1982. Reassessing Zooarchaeological Quantification. In: World Archaeology 14. 41-60.

According to Gilbert and Singer, currently available means of quantifying archaeological fauna for the purpose of assessing original species ratios of the ancient kill are generally inadequate to the task. Depositional processes and the distortion they may create, will skew such calculations which are uniformly dependent upon some measure of representativeness in bone recovery frequencies. In the paper, examples of depositional biases are given and encouragement is offered to document formative processes and potential post-depositional disturbances. An alternative approach to spacies ratio estimation is presented that utilizes decay functions based upon bone loss rates and depositional time intervals that would be modeled on a case by case basis.

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IJZEREEF, F.G.

Ijzereef, F.G. 1989. Social differentiation from animal bone studies. In: D. Serjeantson and T. Waldron (ed) Diets and Crafts in Towns. The Evidence of Animal Remains from the Roman to Post-Medieval periods. BAR International Series 199. Oxford. 41-53.

Ijzereef studies the animal remains in a post-medieval of Amsterdam. First the bones are divided in nine cathegories according the animals where they are from. Next the vast quantities are weighed in order to have an indication of the spread of the different types over the houses. This gives him the possibility to determine which houses were inhabited by Jews (no pork) and the social status of the inhabitants.

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KING, A.

King, A. 1999. Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparison of the mammal bones. In: JRA 12. 168-202.

By studying the amout of bones of cattle, sheep and pork, King distinguishes different consumption patterns of flesh over the Roman empire.

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MORENO-GARCIA, Marta and ORTON, Clive

Moreno-Garcia, M and C. Orton. 1996. A New Statistical Tool for Comparing Animal Bone Assemblages. In: JArchSci 23. 437-453.

Article comparing the compositions of assemblages in terms of the proportions of both different spacies and of differnet bone elements in the assemblages. It should be equally applicable to other categories of objects that are usually found in a broken state (eg. ceramics). The method used is correspondance analysis cfr. Cool and Baxter for an application on Roman glass.

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O'CONNOR, Terry P.

O'Connor, T.P. 2001. Animal Bone Quantification. In: Brothwell, D.R. and A.M. Pollard (ed) Handbook of Archaeological Sciences. Chichester. 703-710.

Article reviewing the principal methods used for quantifying the taxa present in archaelogical animal bone assemblages. These are:
1. raw counts of identified specimens (Number of Identified Specimens NISP or Total Number of Fragments TNF)
2. the weight of identified fragments
3. the estimation of the Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI)
4. the estimation of the killed population which has contributed to the sample (Probable Number of Individuals PNI)


O'Connor, T. 2000. The Archaeology of Animal Bones. College Station.

Book on zooarchaeology drawing attention to the value of faunal evidence in defining human behavior. He shows the means of and the reasons for studying the scraps of bone that represent meals, pets, vermin and the web of relationships that humas make with animals. In the first part the procedures of zooarchaeology are critically discussed, as e.g. the deficiencies in the quantification methods applied to animal bone assemblages. In his later chapters he deals with the processes of interpretation, bringing together a wide range of studies to show how pertinent the evidence of bones can be. Standard work on zooarchaeology.

Review by Kate Clark. 2001. AJA 105. 716-717. (map 3)

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ORTON, Clive

Orton, C. 1996. Dem Dry Bones. In: J. Bird, M. Hassall and H. Sheldon (eds) Interpreting Roman London. Papers in Memory of Hugh Chapman. Oxford. 199-208.

Analysis comparable to the one of Mureno-Garcia and Orton but limited to some contexts of Roman London.

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PRESTON, Miracle and MILNER Nicky

Preston, M. and N. Milner. 2002. Consuming Passions and Patterns of Consumption. Cambridge.

This volume outlines and illustrates the importance of considering social contexts of food consumption in interpretations of past and present human societies, giving a new twist to the old adage 'You are what you eat'. What we eat, how we eat, are and always have been fundamental to the structuring of social life, both in the past and in the present. The remains of food are also among the most common archaeological finds. The papers in this volume explore and develop ways of using food to write social history; they move beyond taphonomic and economic properties of 'subsistence resources' to examine the social background and cultural contexts of food preparation and consumption. Contributions break new ground in method and interpretation in case studies spanning the Palaeolithic to the Present, and from the Amazon to the Arctic. This volume will thus be essential reading for all archaeologists, anthropologists and social historians interested in the prehistory and history of food consumption.
A work on the social meaning of food consumption. Probably very useful for interpreting differences in the occurance of faunal remains. Especially usefull for the posibilities and archaeological interpretation of correspondence analysis plots.

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RINGROSE, T.J.

Ringrose, T.J. 1993. Bone Counts and Statistics: A Critique. In: Journal of Archaeological Science 20. 121-157.

Paper discussing the nature and use of quantitative data in vertebrate faunal archaeology, concentrating on bone counts rather than measurements on individual bones. In a first section the objectives and problems involved in the study of faunal remains are explored. The second section describes the various quantification methods and tries to point out which measures are best in which circumstances. The last two sections deal with the use and analysis of such counted data outlining recent research in the taphonomy and wel-known studies of faunal remains lacking logical or statistical support.

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ROWLEY-CONWY, Peter

Rowley-Conwy, P. 1994. Dung, Dirt and Deposits: site formation under conditions of near-perfect preservations at Qasr-Ibrim, Egyptian Nubia. In: R. Luff and P. Rowley-Conwy (eds.) Whither Envoronmental Archaeology ? Oxbow Monograph 38. Oxbow Books. Oxford. 25-32.

Interesting article showing that archaeologists are to keen on interpreting a context as primary refuse. As the example of Qasr Ibrim shows: hardly any primary or defacto refuse survives, because floors are swept clean and the material is dumped into some other area's, all deposits are secondary refuse mixed by the dumping process.

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VAN NEER, Wim

Van Neer W., O. Lernau, R. Friedman, G. Mumford, J. Poblome and M. Waelkens. In press. Fish remains from archaeological sites as indicators of former trade connections in the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Paléorient 30/1 (in press).

Van Neer W. and Ervynck A. (2004) Remains of traded fish in archaeological sites: indicaters of status or bulk food ? In: S. Jones O’Day, W. Van Neer and A. Ervynck (eds.) Behaviour behind bones. The zooarchaeology of ritual, religion, status and identity ed. (Oxford 2004) 203-214.

The presence on archaeological sites of fish species that have been imported from distant areas have often been regarded as an indicator of high status. Typical examples include the Spanish mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and Nilotic fish (Clarias sp.). In this paper the available evidence in literature for the trade in those fish spacies is reviewed together with factors that had an influence on their price such as their quality, preparation and transport costs. It appears that traded fish turns up in numerous settlement types of varying status, thus showing that caution is needed when using these remains as indicators of high status or purchasing power.

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Opgesteld door Toon Putzeys januari 2002
Laatst vernieuwd in augustus 2006