Czurda-Ruth, B. 2005. Glas aus Ephesos: Hanghaus 1 und eine Werkstätte des 6. Jahrhunderts n.Chr. auf der Agora. In: Annales de 16e Congrès de l'Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre, Londres 2003. Nottingham. 158-161.

Especially interesting for its description of a 6th century AD glass workshop in the centre of Ephesus. At the beginning of the 5th c. AD the Tetragonos Agora of Ephesus was largely renovated and newly created small structures were from that period till AD 612 at the latest used as shops and workshops. In rooms J and L a glass workshop was attested. The rooms contained a kiln, refuse from glass production and a concentration of glass vessels and glass weights.

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Cool, H.E.M and M.J. Baxter. 1999. Peeling the onion: an aproach to comparing vessel glass assemblages. In: JRA 12. 72-100.

Intresting atricle comparing roman glass assemblages from sites over whole Britain with the aid of Correspondance Analysis (Multivariate statistics). Especially useful for the methodology, for example to examine all room assemblages from whole DA.

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KELLER, Daniel

Keller, D. 2004. Social and economic aspects of glass recycling. In: J. Bruhn, B. Croxford and D. Grigoropoulos (ed) TRAC 2004. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conferece, University of Durham, 26-27 March 2004. Oxford: Oxbow. 65-78.

Very useful introduction on the social and economic aspects of glass production and glass recycling in Antiquity. With further references.

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PRICE, Jennifer

Price, J. 2005. Glass working and glassworkers in cities and towns. In: A. Mac Mahon and J. Price (eds) Roman Working Lives and Urban Living. Oxford: Oxbow books. 167-190.

This paper provides a very useful introduction to the extent of urban glass production presenting the evidence for glass working sites, the artisans involved in production, retail outlets and the glass in circulation using information from the eastern Mediterranean as well as from Italy and the western provinces. With extensive bibliography.

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Shortland, A., L. Schachner, I. Freestone, M. Tite. in press. Natron as a flux in the early vitreous materials industry: sources, beginnings and reasons for decline. In: Journal of Archaeological Science.

Natron deposits, the best known of which being those at Wadi Natrun in Egypt, have been used as a flux in the production of glass from the early 1th millennium BC onwards. In this paper, the history of natron as a flux is traced from its beginnings until its apparent shortage during th 7th to 9th centuries AD and its subsequent replacement by plant ash during the 9th century AD.

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STERN, E. Marianne

Stern, E. M. 2004. The glass Banausoi of Sidon and Rome. In: M. Beretta (ed.) When Glass Matters. Studies in the History of Science and Art from Graeco-Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Era. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore. 77-120.

Article with largely the same content as Sterns article in AJA. In this paper however, more attention is paid to the role of the Basaunoi or furnace-workers: the craftsmen who worked with glass.

Stern, E. M. 1999. Roman glassblowing in a cultural context. In: AJA 103. 441-484.

Commercial glassblowing dates from the beginning of Augustus' rule. This paper focuses on the impact of this novel technique on Roman society: the development of the technique, the artisans who made the glass, the merchants who marketed it and the costumers who bought and used vessel glass. The perfection of glassblowing is characterized by improvements in tools and equipment and the discovery that molten glass can be blown. The division in two separate branches - one for the making of raw glass from primary ingredients (primary production), the other for working the material and creating glass objects (secondary production) - determined the structure of the industry. Dominated by the division in two branches, glass commerce and trade were brisk, both within and beyond the borders of the empire. Glass vessels played a significant role in daily life of all segments of society. This paper is a very important introduction in all aspects of the study of Roman glass.

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Opgesteld door Toon Putzeys oktober 2005
Laatst vernieuwd in februari 2006