Map reveals strange cosmos

The BBC NEWS article of 3 March 2003 Map reveals strange cosmos is for many reasons very interesting. The document contains an interview with Dr Max Tegmark, of the University of Pennsylvania, US. For more about M.Tegmark read this: Welcome to Max Tegmark's CMB data analysis center.

The article starts with a picture of the Cosmic Micro Wave Background radiation in as a sphere , not as an ellipse we see most often.
Near the picture is written:
It is a photo of the most distant thing we can see etc.
The entire observable Universe is inside this sphere, with us at the centre of it.
IMO this is an image of the most earliest events that we can (at the center) can observe. If light travel distance is considered then they are the most distant.
It should be mentioned that the observed sphere of photons is not a physical object, it has no distance. The observed sphere is something like the night sky. The same with observable Universe.
The total Universe (The present state of all matter and more, originating at the the Big Bang) is a huge physical object. The origin of CMB radiation is a small physical object. Its shape is a sphere but only the thick surface is considered. The total Universe at that moment was slightly larger.
Near the picture is written:
About 300,000 years after Big Bang, matter and radiation "decoupled"
In the text is written:
The radiation that we detect as the CMB comes from a time when the Universe was less than half a million years old; from the so-called recombination era when hydrogen atoms formed in the cooling, expanding fireball of the Big Bang.
This is an article from 2003 which uses both the words decoupled and recombination. IMO we should use the word decoupling era, because that was what, assumed, has happened. Recombination reflects going back in time, which did not happen.

What makes this article so interesting is that the CMB radiation is drawn in a sphere. In fact we need two spheres: one from the "front" and one from the "back".
  • The article Cosmic Symphonie from Scientif American at page 51 "The power spectrum" shows a similar sphere.
    Together 4 images are shown of the CMB radiation observed from 4 different angles: 64 degrees, Large, Intermediate and Small.

  • When you visit the following url: CMB Power Animations you will see a continuous range of simulated CMB radiation images going from large angles to small angles.
    Comparing those with the 4 images in the Scientific American reveals that they are the same.
    This leads to the following conclusion The 4 images in the Scientific American article are not directly based on observations
  • This means that both the spherical CMB radiation image in the BBC article and in the Scientific American are based on observations.
    This raises the following questions:
    1. How is the CMB Power Spectrum calculated from observations.
    2. What is the most current observed CMB radiation spherical image?
    3. How many of those images are there ?
  • To answer the first question.
    1. Starting point is one circle on the sphere (something similar like the equator). This circle represent a line of pixels covering a range of 360 degrees. However that is not what you are going to use. What you need are the measured photon intensities for the positions on this circle.
    2. The second step is the calculation of an autocorrelation at an angle l. That means the multiplication of the intensity at a certain angle at the circle with the intensity a certain angle l futher away. And this for all the angles of the full circle.
    3. The third step will be to perform the same for all different types of l. The result the power spectrum as a function of l (I assume)
    4. The fourth step will be to do the same for different circles.

My rough guess is that the resulting observed power spectrum (OPS) does not show the different peaks
Figure 1 at page 3 and Figure 2 at page 8 from the Nine year WMAP observations shows the most current CMB Power Spectrum.
My rough guess is that the Power Spectrum (The continuous line) is a Calculated Power Spectrum and probably calculated with the program CAMB. (CMBFAST in the past). The Power spectrum also shows small vertical lines. I expect that those lines reflect what is observed, i.e. what is calculated based on the observed photon density.
What I want to understand is how are those vertical lines calculated? Why are they not evenly spaced?

There is one more complication to all of this.
When you goto the end of the document: Max Tegmark's library: saskmap you will see a rainbow. Technically each color is a combination of three colors: Red, Green and Blue. In reality to display each color on two are used. The left color is a combination of Red and Blue. Yellow is a combination of Red and Green. In short always one color is zero. What is even stronger always one color has the value 255. White has the combination 255,255,255. Black has the combination 0,0,0.
When you test all the images in that same document this is the same: Always one color is zero, always one value is 255.
When you consider this spherical image this is not true: Max Tegmark's Home. The picture is blurred. One color that is added is black to make it look round. That means the original data is modified. Why?

We live in an interesting world.

Observed ?
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
The simplest explanation of the above image of the Microwave BackGround Radiation (photons) is a thin layer of almost all photons at the outskirst of the Universe at that moment. What the situation was at the inside of that layer is a mistery for us. For more information select: The Chemical Universe

De above picture is reproduced with the program the Visual Basic 2010. For a review of VB 2010 read this: Visual Basic 2010 Evaluation and Criticism. For a copy select the author.

If you want to observe the Cosmic Microwave Back Ground radiation as a rotating sphere select this program: RotatingSphere.exe (2MB)
Observing the Radiation is not dangerous !
When you observe the rotaing sphere you should ask yourself the Question:
Is it possible, only by using the data presented in this image, to calculate the Cosmological Constants (Including the age of the Universe) ?
At the same time you should also try to answer the following question:
Is it possible to calculate what happens inside the sun by observing the outside

Is there a difference between hot spots and cold spots within the same geometry?

This subject is discussed in the document: Lecture 31: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Go to the paragraph: "Are the Boomerang and WMAP Data Important?"
There you can read:
If the geometry is flat, the average size of spots is about one degree.
The problem is, how do you know this. There is no way to test this with an experiment. My interpretation is that this should be both true for the hot spots and the cold spots.
Next you can read:
The diagrams show computer simulations of what the sky is predicted to look like for different geometries.
The left diagram shows the situation when the Universe is closed. In that case the light rays bend toward each other.
Consider yourself at the center of the night sky and that the sky is covered with hot and cold spots. The following 3 diagrams show this.
                HHH
             |       |  
        C    |       |     C
      C      |       |       C
    C        |       |
   ______    |       |           H
 H       \    \     /             H  
          \    \   /            __
H          \    \ /            /   C
H           \_  | |   ________/    C 
 ____________ Observer________     C
C    ________   | | |         \    C
C   /           | | \ \        \__ C 
 C /            | |  \ \         
                | |   \ \       
   H            | |    \ \       H
                | |     \ \_____     
      C        /   \     \     
              /     \     \ C 
           H /       \ H
                CCC 
          
              Closed Universe
                 HHH
                  |       
         C        |        /C
       C \        |       /    C
     C    \       |      /
           \      |     /         H
  H         \     |    /           H  
             \    |   /           
 H            \   |  /              C
 H             \  | /               C 
  ____________ Observer_____________C
 C             /  |  \              C
 C            /   |   \             C 
  C          /    |    \          
            /     |     \        
    H      /      |      \        H
          /       |       \      
       C /        |        \     
                  |         \C 
            H     |     H
                 CCC 
          
            Flat Universe
                 HHH
              \       /  
         C     \     /     C
       C        \   /        C
     C           | |
    \            | |             H
  H  \           | |              H  
 H    \          | |      ________
 H     \         | |     /         C
 H      \______  | |   _/          C 
  ____________ Observer_           C
 C         ___   | |    \          C       
 C        /      / \ \ \ \________ C 
  C______/      /   \ \ \_____
               /     \ \      \       
    H         |       | \      \  H
              |       |  \      \     
       C      |       |   \       
              |       |    \ C 
           H  |       | H
                 CCC 

            Open Universe
In the above sketch at the left shows the lines for a closed Universe.
For the hot spot above they bend towards each other.
But this creates a problem: If they bend towards each other for the hot spots than for the cold spots they have to behave different, implying that they have to bend away. This is shown in the above sketch.

For an Open Universe shown at the left the reverse situation exists:
For the hot spots the lines bend away from each other and for the cold spots they bend towards each other.
Ofcourse this is a very unsatifying situation, because why should the behaviour of hot spots versus cold spots be different for the same geometry.

The problem with the bending of light rays is that consider the full sky that not all the light rays can bend towards each other nor that all the lightrays can bend away from each other.

The image in the center of a flat Universe does not have this problem.
The bottom line is that the size of the hot and cold spots is no proof that the Universe has an either open close or flat geometry.


For further Reading

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If you want to discuss this subject in sci.astro.research please select Map Reveals strange Cosmos


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Created: 23 Januari 2013

For more about the CMB radiation read this: Friedmann's equation - Question 13
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