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I. Protocol Questions & Answers


[book picture] What does SLIP stand for and what does it do? (2)

SLIP is an acronym for Serial Line Internet Protocol, it is the serial line (modem) version of IP (Internet Protcol), i.e. a protocol used to run IP over serial lines, such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables, interconnecting 2 systems. SLIP is defined in RFC 1055. A large portion of the sites on the net that offer a SLIP connection are using packages based on KA9Q. Many universities are going to Client Server systems to lessen the load on their computing resources, SLIP is one of the options that they are taking. With a SLIP connection, the machine in front of you is virtually on the net. All your commands are preformed locally (ie. FTP, News reading, Mail Reading, etc.), as you no longer need a log in account to process your terminal commands into IP.

So when you connect to your favorite archive, the file comes directly to your machine.

[book picture] What does CSLIP stand for and what does it do? (2)

CSLIP is the abreviation of Compressed SLIP. See the entry for SLIP.

[...]

[book picture] What does PPP stand for and what does it do? (2)

PPP is the abreviation of Point-to-Point Protocol. It provides a method for transmitting packets over serial point-to-point links. PPP is defined in RFC 1171.

[...]

[book picture] Could you explain Client Server in laymans terms?

Client/Server has nothing to do with data, hardware, or software. It is simply a separation of something wanting something and getting it from something else.

I am hungry so I go to a resturant. I am the client. I ask my waiter/waitress to bring me a meal. He/she is the server. This is the client/server model. No data, no hardware, no operating system!

I am hungry again so I go to my kitchen. I make myself a meal and eat it. There is no concept of client/server here. This is the traditional model.

[book picture] Does my remote host server has to have SLIP drivers, for me to use SLIP on my machine?

Yes. Without cooperation on the other end SLIP software on your machine will do you no good. Contact your system administrator as many university systems already offer some form of SLIP connection. Preferences vary from site to site on what they will have installed on their end.

[book picture] Does my remote host server has to have PPP drivers, for me to use PPP on my machine? (2)

Yes. Without cooperation on the other end PPP software on your machine will do you no good. Normally this shouldn't be a problem as most Internet Service Providers and universaties use this protocol.

[book picture] What is TCP/IP? (4)

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the common na me for a family of over 100 data-communications protocols used to organize computers and data-communications equipment into computer networks. TCP/IP was developed to interconnect hosts on ARPANET, PRNET (packet radio), and SATNET (packet satellite). All three of these networks have since been retired; but TCP/IP lives on. It is currently used on a large international network of networks called the Internet, whose members include universities, other research institutions, government facilities, and many corporations. TCP/IP is also sometimes used for other networks, particularly local area networks that tie together numerous different kinds of computers or tie together engineering workstations. What are the other well-known standard protocols in the TCP/IP family? Other than TCP and IP, the three main protocols in the TCP/IP suite are the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and the TELNET Protocol. There are many other protocols in use on the Internet. The Internet Activities Board (IAB) regularly publishes an RFC that describes the state of standardization of the various Internet protocols. This document is the best guide to the current status of Internet protocols and their recommended usage. (Source FYI4.TXT available from IRG)

[book picture] What is UUCP?

From: r.evans@ic.ac.uk (Robert Evans)

>>> I don't understand what uucp is.
>
>> I *think* it stands for: UNIX to UNIX Communications Protocol, whatever
>>that means.

It is a venerable (read: old) and still quite widely used method for transferring data between UNIX (suprise!) machines. It is usually used over dial-up lines. Suppose remote machine 'lonely' has no network connection, but has a modem and dial-up access. Also there's a machine called 'cables' that has network connections coming out of it's ears. 'Lonely' could use 'cables' to send and receive email by using uucp.

For example, if you wanted to copy the file "mint.zoo" (what else:-) from lonely to cables. On lonely you'd type:

prompt% uucp mint.zoo cables\!~/mint.zoo

Periodically, a program runs on cables called 'uucico'. What this does is see what files have to be copied, then dials up the remote machine, logs in as "uucp" and sends them. You'd end up with a file called mint.zoo in the directory /usr/spool/uucppublic on cables.

Uucp's main advantage is that you don't pay for a permanent connection, files are only transferred when uucico is called.

Uucp used to be used for virtually all mail transfers, using what are called "bang paths" - some old-timers (:-) still have them in their sigs. To send email, you'd have to specify an exact route from your machine to the destination machine, separated by bangs (!'s). To get an idea of what a bang path sort-of looked like, look at the Path: header of any news article.

Cheers, Rob

[book picture] My organization doesnt give me access to the newsgroups. What can I do?

From: bmiller@magnus.acs.ohio-state.EDU (Bill Miller)
Newsgroups: acs.homenet.tech
Subject: FNEWS -> Re: Reading News without an account.

>There are several NNTP servers out on the Internet that are publicly
>accessible. Most of them are read-only, allowing clients to read news
>articles, but not to post them. A reasonable attitude, and a
>reasonable compromise - to allow posting access in good faith, most
>sites would have to implement some kind of authentication, and the
>effort required might not balance out to benefit to the people who are
>actually paying for the site.
>
>Scott Yanoff's excellent Guide to Internet Services, posted regularly
>to alt.internet.services and news.answers, lists some of these
>publicly accessible NNTP servers.
>
> Of course, if you don't have access to news, it's hard to
>get said Guide.
>
>Thus, here's a list of NNTP servers that was posted to
>alt.internet.services a month or so ago. I've removed all the non-US
>sites (it's not nice to abuse trans-oceanic links). All of them are at
>port 119.
>
>cc.usu.edu
>europa.eng.gtefsd.com
>fconvx.ncifcrf.gov
>gaia.ucs.orst.edu
>hermes.chpc.utexas.edu
>netnews.cc.lehigh.edu
>news.yale.edu
>news.ysu.edu
>newshub.nosc.mil
>newsserver.jvnc.net
>sol.ctr.columbia.edu
>vax1.mankato.msus.edu
>
>To access any of these, you'll need a computer that has access to
>telnet outside the university (this precludes most, if not all, of the
>public labs). And you'll need an NNTP client. For the Mac, there's
>Internews, NewsWatcher, and Nuntius. For the PC, there's Trumpet and
>WinQVT/Net.  VMS: NEWSREADER, FNEWS, VNEWS, and others. Unix: A whole
>bunch. (rn, trn, tin). Amiga.. . Where they are... use Gopher
>and Archie to find 'em. Consider it an exercise for the reader. :)
>
>As always, please be considerate of these other sites. They've kindly
>offered their resources to the Internet at large, don't abuse them
>with large amounts of traffic, or by trying to hack the sites.
>

     There is source code available from Gard Eggesboe Abrahamsen
(ga@samson.mrih.no), for an offline NNTP Newsreader call Catchup.  It is
postcardware and in C.  It looks to be fairly straight forward code.  If
you would like information about it please write him, if you can not
contact him I have a copy that he posted to comp.sys.atari.st.
(D.Ackerman)


[book picture] I'm not on an university. How can I connect to the internet? (1)

Nowadays almost everybody can get internet access. In most European countries and in the U.S. you can dial in locally to a commercial ISP. Some well known ISP are AOL, UUNet, Deamon, Compuserve and a lot of others. Also if you have a friend or coworker who has access to Usenet news have them send a note to the newsgroup alt.internet.access.wanted and/or alt.services.

[book picture] Where do I find out more info on the Internet without buying a large number of books?

Well if you already have access to FTP you are on your way. Almost every major book that has appeared about the Internet, has appeared on the Internet. Also if the book is not available in digital format, usually the resources they used for the book are available on the net. For the locations of some of these resources please look below in 'VI More Info available on the Internet' and if you need help with FTP, read the Atari FTP List (seperate document). It contains an excellent introduction to the process of using FTP sites.

If you do not have access to the newsgroups a user guide to the Internet Resource Guide is available by email. Write to mailserv@ds.internic.net include HELP in the message body.




(1) : Last modified on 22 July 1999 by Karl Samyn
(2) : Last modified on 28 August 1999 by Karl Samyn