TCP-IP Model


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The TCP-IP model describes its network communication frmaework using five layers. Brief descriptions of each layer are as follows :
Application layer
Consists of user-accessed application programs and network services. This layer is also responsible for defining the way in which cooperating networks represent data. A gateway functions at this layer.
Transpport layer
Manages the transfer of data using acknowledged and unacknowledged transport protocols. This layer also manages the connection between cooperating applications.
Internet Layer
Manages data addressing and delivery between networks, as well as fragmenting data for the network interface layer. A router functions at this layer.
Network layer
Manages the delivery of data across the physical network. This layer provides error detection and packt framing. A bridge functions at this layer.
Physical layer
Describes the network hardware, includeing electrical signal characteistics such as voltage and current. A repeater functions at this layer.