The TCP-IP model describes its network communication frmaework using five layers. Brief descriptions of each layer are as follows :
- Application layer
- Consists of user-accessed application programs and network services. This layer is also responsible for defining the way in which cooperating networks represent data. A gateway functions at this layer.
- Transpport layer
- Manages the transfer of data using acknowledged and unacknowledged transport protocols. This layer also manages the connection between cooperating applications.
- Internet Layer
- Manages data addressing and delivery between networks, as well as fragmenting data for the network interface layer. A router functions at this layer.
- Network layer
- Manages the delivery of data across the physical network. This layer provides error detection and packt framing. A bridge functions at this layer.
- Physical layer
- Describes the network hardware, includeing electrical signal characteistics such as voltage and current. A repeater functions at this layer.