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Autochromes: The Art of Early Color Photography


The birth of color photography with the aid of potatoes

Autochromes from the 'Early Visual Media' collection

One of the most delicate, in all aspects of the word, photographical techniques is the Autochrome. These early 20th. Century color photographs, invented by the Lumière brothers, (Auguste and Louis) show images with a 'pointillistic' effect.

The Lumière's contribution to color photography is perhaps of more importance in comparison to their contribution in film history, since in the period (1895) they "invented" cinema, projected moving images where since long in existence!

Autochromes were not the first photographs in color since the search for color started at the dawn of photography and is seen in most early techniques true coloring by hand. E.g. Daguerreotypes, Ambrotypes, Chrystoleums, ...etc.

However, the autochrome was the first practical technique that produced color without the artificial aid of an artist.

Mouve mouse over image to see detail of woman

   
   
Girl with her doll


Due to the use of transparent
dyed potato starch (7000 grains / mm2) spread onto the glassplates, autochromes are dark but translucent images. They could be projected but are best viewed via back-lighting in a viewing device known as Diascope.

Since autochromes are extremely fragile, many of them were destroyed.
A personal selection of stereo-autochromes, made by mostly amateurs, is seen on the current page.

Most images on this pages are in the small European (4.21" x 1.77") standard size for glass stereo plates. (107mm. x 405mm.) Obviously, many other (stereo & non-stereo) formats do exist.

The majority of autochromes found are made by mostly amateurs. This is almost certainly the case for most (if not all) of the images on this page.


The first fragile autochromes were glass-plates. However, from 1932, glass-plates where often replaced by Autochrome film. The appearance of Kodacolor in 1936 started the down of the Autochrome process.

Both types of autochromes, glass or film, were mostly sandwiched between glasses to protect the extremely fragile emulsion layer.

Both children portraits (half of stereo images) are examples of autochromes on flexible film sheet, protected in the above described method.

Children with their toys were an obvious subject for proud parents experimenting with the latest "colour pencil of nature".

Since the reproduction of natural colours was a novelty at the beginning of the
20th. Century, the choise for colourful subjects was more than obvious.
Images depicting landscapes, still lives, family life and gardens, both public or privat, with a profusion of flowers were often captured.

See more Autochromes at Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud.


Three Belgian Autochromists in the collection of Florent Van Hoof.
Girl with her sunshade
   
Women behind flowers

 


The Stunning Autochrome collection of Florent Van Hoof
Alfonse Van Besten - Paul Sano - Charles Corbet

Photography aimed from his very beginning, round 1839, the ambition to reproduce true colour as can be seen in hand-coloured daguerreotypes and albumin prints. Since the Lumiére brothers made the autochrome process commercially available in June 1907, photographers began worldwide experimenting with the new process.

Collector Florent Van Hoof carefully preserves hundreds of wonderful high quality autochromes by three Belgian Autochromists, Alfonse Van Besten (1865 - 1926) - Paul Sano (1874 - 1960) - Charles Corbet (1868 - 1936). Click on the stereo 'Skulls' autochrome to visit the highlights on Van Hoof's new website, 'Three Belgian Autochromists'. Some of these important images are reproduced, with kind permission of the copyright holder, on this page. For more biographical information on Van Besten, Sano and Corbet goto to the latter orginal source.
 
Paul Sano 'Skulls' - c. 1912, stereo autochrome 9 x 12


© Collection Florent Van Hoof
 

 

Alfonse Van Besten, 'Two girls picking Cornflowers'
c. 1912, autochrome 9 x 9



© Collection Florent Van Hoof
Similar autochrome in collection Fotomuseum-Antwerpen
Paul Sano, 'Girl and Parrot' c. 1920, autochrome 12 x 9


© Collection Florent Van Hoof

 

Charles Corbet, 'Young lady with a fan' - c. 1910, autochrome 9 x 12


© Collection Florent Van Hoof

 


Alfonse Van Besten, 'Stagecoaches at Korenlei, Gent' c. 1912, autochrome 9 x 12



© Collection Florent Van Hoof

 

Alfonse Van Besten, 'Washing and Bleaching' c. 1912, autochrome 9 x 12


© Collection Florent Van Hoof
 
Alfonse Van Besten, 'Children at play' c. 1912, autochrome 9 x 12


© Collection Florent Van Hoof
 
Charles Corbet, 'Marketday at Middelburg' (NL) - c. 1910, autochrome 9 x 12


© Collection Florent Van Hoof

 

Alfonse Van Besten, 'Modesty' c. 1912, autochrome 12 x 9

Modesty
© Collection Florent Van Hoof
Similar autochrome in collection Fotomuseum-Antwerpen
 
Paul Sano, 'Double portrait of Mrs. Corbet' c. 1912, autochrome 8,5 x 10


© Collection Florent Van Hoof

 
More Autochromes from the 'Early Visual Media' collection
     
   
 

On the left we see a hand held Diascope, shown here with the kind permission of Bernard Plazonnet.

The diascope is a viewing device for admiring autochromes in optimum conditions. The illustrated viewer is designed for single plate autochromes.

"There is a mirror in the back of the foldable "bellows" you can see beyond the front frame. The "shower" has to tilt the device so that light strikes the mirror and is reflected through the Autochrome" Bernard Plazonnet.

Apparatus for viewing stereo autochromes looks very similar too some stereo viewers.
In both cases, single or stereo, the light is directed via a mirror to illuminate the back of the autochrome glassplate.
Stereo autochromes are, obviously, often viewed with a Brewster type hand held viewer.

Some table model viewers have special accessories to enable them in viewing a set of autochromes stored in bakelite trays.
(The Stereodrome Gaumont & The Jules Richard Taxiphote.)

© Bernard Plazonnet collection    
     

See 'A Century of Colour Photography' by Pamela Roberts.
Published on the occasion of the Centeneray of true Colour Photography, The Autochome.

 

Women and flowers

 
     
     
 

Women and flowers and her dog

 
     
 

 

 
 

Women on terrace with Hydrangeas

 
     
     
  Women on terrace with flowers

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
  Flowers in pot

 
     
 

 

 
  Portrait of a woman with bonnet

 
     
     
  Portrait of a man with hat

 
     
 

 

 
  Portrait of a dog

 
   

Visit also albumin stereo nudes

Visit other stereo views

 

Visit Stereoscope viewers

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he online Media Archaeology Museum version (21) Jan to Dec 2015 - All rights are protected by SOFAM.be